Tsunami Quotes (17 quotes)
Emergency relief measures are still ongoing in Indonesia, where a magnitude earthquake and ensuing tsunami has caused massive. Tsunami magnitude scales (Horikawa and Shuto, ; Abe, , ; Hatori, ; The relationship between the magnitude of an earthquake and the. "Lisbon Earthquake Poem" () by Voltaire At a 12 meter high tsunami -wave reached the city and destroyed the entire harbour.
With respect to public health in particular, a greater focus on ongoing disease surveillance, the appropriate targeting of aid to those in most need, and strengthening of health care systems 11 can help to mitigate the medium to long term health impacts of tsunamis. Advanced tsunami warning systems may vastly improve early detection, and education campaigns can play a crucial role in improving awareness about tsunami risk and mitigation Policies enacted by the Sri Lankan government following the tsunami highlight some of the challenges to longer term disaster mitigation where enactment of a buffer zone policy that forced the relocation of coastal communities had deleterious social and economic impacts In adopting disaster mitigation policy, governments should consider the contribution not only of physical vulnerability i.
Limitations Systematic reviews face numerous limitations. The effects of tsunamis are the subject of gross approximations and aggregations which result in a great deal of imprecision. The availability and quality of data has likely increased and improved over time, however, in many events deaths are unknown or unrecorded. For a significant number of events no data are reported for injured, displaced, and affected populations; this likely contributes to a substantial underestimation of the impacts of tsunamis on human populations.
Inconsistencies and errors were common in the data files from the two different sources, and in some cases inclusion criteria were not ideal for the purposes of this review which created a challenge in reconciling event lists. Additionally, mainly due to the small number of tsunami run-up events reported over the study period, we were unable to perform more complicated statistical analyses that would have provided estimates of the independent effects of place and event characteristics on tsunami related death.
When combined with the relatively small number of tsunami events, uncertainty in the historical record limits the conclusions that can be drawn about the impact of tsunamis on human populations. A principal limitation of the literature review is the fact that only English language publications were included; this likely contributed to incomplete coverage of studies published in other languages originating from low and middle income countries.
Conclusions From toa total oftsunami-related deaths and close to 50, injuries, respectively, were reported, the majority of which were concentrated in the Indian Ocean tsunami.
While mortality estimates presented in this study are consistent with those reported in other studies, particularly for the Indian Ocean Tsunami, the injury figure may be an underestimate of the true value given low reporting levels.
The distribution of tsunami related deaths varied greatly by region and economic development level.
Findings from the historical event review indicate that the South East Asian region and poorer countries were more likely to experience higher mortality was associated with larger wave height and closer proximity to the source.
The primary cause of tsunami-related mortality was drowning and, although a number of injury types were reported following tsunamis, the ratio of dead to injured is much greater in tsunamis as compared to other natural disaster types. Risk factors for tsunami-related death included female sex and very young and old age.
Tsunami losses are likely to increase in future years due to population growth in high risk seismic areas. Increased attention to tsunami prevention and mitigation strategies, with a focus on areas most prone to tsunamis and populations at greater risk is necessary. While strategies that are specific to the development level and country context are important, global initiatives such as early warning systems are essential for further tsunami risk mitigation.
Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. We would also like to thank John McGready for biostatistical support, Claire Twose for assistance in designing and implementing the systematic literature review, and Hannah Tappis and Bhakti Hansoti for their assistance in the revision process. Accessed December 15, Keller, E and Blodgett R.
Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Death toll from Indonesia's quake and tsunami continues to rise, reaching 832
Public Health Consequences of Disasters, E. Hogan D and Burstein J Eds. Lippincott William and Wilkins: Accessed June 2, Cyclones, tsunamis and human health: Levy J and Gopalakrishnan C.
Intl J Water Res Dev 21 4: Surg Clin N Am Env Sci Pol 9 Dengler L and Preuss J. Pure and Applied Geophysics The health effects of tsunamis. Updated December 31, The Aitape Tsunami: Reconstructing the Event from Interviews and Field Mapping. Emerg Med Australas 17 4: Calder J and Mannion S. Orthopaedics in Sri Lanka post-tsunami. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 87 6: Johnson L and Travis A. Trauma response to the Asian tsunami: Krabi Hospital, Southern Thailand.
Emerg Med Australas 18 2: Lee V, Low E, Ng et al.
- Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Tsunamis
- Tsunami Quotes
Disaster relief and initial response to the earthquake and tsunami in Meulaboh, Indonesia. Ann Acad Med Singapore 34 9: Medical needs of tsunami disaster refugee camps. A collapsed mosque is seen amid waters from a tsunami surge in Palu, Central Sulawesi on Sept.
Nugroho said aftershocks continue to rock the area with at least recorded until Sunday. He called on the distressed residents to remain calm and told them that humanitarian assistance was on the way despite the damaged access to the affected areas and communication network.
Death toll from Indonesia's quake and tsunami continues to rise, reaching | Arab News
More than half of the inmates in a Palu prison fled after its walls collapsed during the quake, said its warden, Adhi Yan Ricoh. Ricoh said there was no immediate plan to search for the inmates because the prison staff and police were consumed with the search and rescue effort.
This aerial picture shows the debris of a ten-story hotel demolished by an earthquake on Sept. The nearby cities of Donggala and Mamuju were also ravaged, but little information was available due to damaged roads and disrupted telecommunications.
Their fate was unknown. Hundreds of people were injured and hospitals, damaged by the quake, were overwhelmed.
Tears filled his eyes as he recounted feeling the violent earthquake shake the fifth-floor hotel room he shared with his wife and daughter. I hope they are safe. In Decembera massive magnitude 9. Last month, a powerful quake on the island of Lombok killed people.