17, the others had a significant relationship with the agent based on their validity and T-value. . and nurse-patient communication skills questionnaire and. Patients and nursing staff were asked to answer the questions using a 5 point . Two main elements in the relationship between two individuals are respect of. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in .. Do you (nurse and patient) accept each other's opinions?.
Case vignettes were constructed to highlight psychosocial disability and uncertainty regarding the potential for interpersonal aggression.
Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation
Because general and psychiatric nurses, and Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian nurses, were required for the study recruitment was achieved through a snowballing method. Nurses in the initial pool known to the researcher were asked to talk with other potential participants and ask permission for the researcher to approach them to introduce the study formally. Those nurses who expressed an interest in participating were invited to meet with the researcher for the purpose of further explanation of the nature, purpose and procedures of the study.
All participants signed a written consent to anonymous participation. Data were collected in the latter part of and early The diabetes vignette preceding the mental illness vignette of the same questionnaire was given to the nurses to score their responses.
Response Rate Three hundred and forty seven questionnaires were distributed either in person or by mail after initial contact with the prospective participants by Ku [ 18 ]. Two hundred and twenty four were returned response rate of Of the potential participants who were Anglo-Australian or Chinese-Australian returned completed questionnaires, a response rate of Statistical Analysis Principal component analyses were used to identify common dimensions underlying the variation of item scores of the NRS.
Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to estimate the internal reliability of the derived NRS subscales. Two factors nurse type and patient type analyses of variance with repeated measures on patient type were used to examine the discriminant validity of the subscales. T-tests were used to compare any two groups on a dependent variable or to compare within sample pairwise differences on responses to different NRS subscales.
Results Dimensions of the NRS A number of preliminary principal components analyses were conducted to explore the dimensionality of the NRS within each patient type - diabetes and mental illness. This exploration revealed generally similar factors with nine factors having eigenvalues greater than or equal to one.
Scree tests indicated that three, four or five factor solutions were reasonable to examine further for their coherence in content. To incorporate cross-patient type variation in addition to within-patient type variation both patient type responses were factor analysed together.
A five-factor structure on the basis of the Scree plot appeared to be optimal. Factors were rotated obliquely to allow an examination of their interdependence and to help interpret loadings. Item composition was then examined for consistency in item loadings. However, on the interpersonal relationship in nursing care, no instruments were found, which indicated lack of knowledge and lack of scales in this area.
In addition, in the United States, in the nursing scope, the instrument found was the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale 6used to measure communication between undergraduate and graduate students and also validated for Portugal 7.
This scale is restricted to the communication process and has students as the target audience. Given the above, the instruments used to measure the interpersonal relationship do not relate to nursing, have different conceptual directions, mostly from psychology, and only deal with parts of this construct, such as communication and empathy 48.
In turn, the scarcity of instruments measuring interpersonal relationship in nursing care makes it difficult to evaluate specific elements of the nursing work that make the interpersonal relationship effective. Therefore, the measurement of interpersonal relationship in nursing care remains an open field for research.
The development of an instrument in this area would not only identify the current stage of this interpersonal relationship in nursing care, but it would also provide parameters to improve it, favoring a humanitarian praxis, based on general health promotion, prevention of suffering and improvement of care by allowing a system to monitor the quality of interpersonal relationships.
Thus, the objective of this study was to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory IRTand the validation thereof. Method It is a methodological study, with a quantitative approach, delineated from the theoretical, empirical and analytical poles of Psychometrics 9 - In the theoretical pole, the theoretical dimensionality was defined and the constitutive and operational definitions were established. The items were elaborated and content validation was carried out.
These elements were carefully analyzed and the constitutive definitions emerged from them. After elucidating the constitutive definitions, the operational definitions and the items were elaborated, based on an integrative revision 11 and on six focus groups, considering the variety of nursing actions and their contexts, which occurred in the three levels of health care.
The Secondary Care groups were carried out at the Integrated Center for Hypertension and Diabetes ICHDa reference unit for research and care on these diseases, where all its users go through a nursing consultation and health education sections with the nurse.Good Communication Means Good Patient Care - Texas Children's Hospital
The WCUH is a reference center for high-complex care, human resources training and research development. The inclusion criteria for the participants were: Those who did not communicate verbally and those who were in isolation for some contagious infectious disease that prevented interaction with the researcher were excluded. The elaboration of the items followed the twelve criteria of psychometry amplitude, balance, behavior, simplicity, clarity, relevance, precision, modality, typicity, objectivity, variety and credibility 9 - The content analysis was performed by nine nurses that are experts in interpersonal relationship.
These were five academics and four clinicians with clinical experience, research and publications on the subject, from four Brazilian states.
In order to perform the semantic analysis, the NCIRQ was applied in a pilot test to 66 people in the same locations of the focus groups and considering the same inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 28 people from primary care, 23 from secondary care and 15 from tertiary care.
These people were distinct from focus group participants. The difficulties in understanding the words and expressions present in the items were observed, participants were asked about the need for adjustments, and the adequacy of the response categories of each item was reviewed.
Participants in studies for the development of instruments via TRI should have a sample size enough to preserve heterogeneity and achieve respondents covering the entire latent trait, but there is no consensus on the ideal number.