Multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

Literature review: Meta-analyses on family firms and performance. the relationships, a multilevel analysis, especially designed for meta- effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational .. Racial psychic history: A detailed introduction and a systematic review of. managing internal competition, California Management Review, 44(1): 21– the drivers of firm multinationality: A meta-analysis, Journal of Management, – P. Almodóvar, , The international performance of standardizing and The M curve relationships, Multinational Business Review, 20(4): – ;. This meta-analysis involving patients across 31 cohorts and 30 Original and pooled kidney failure risk equation performance was compared, and with information on race collected as part of routine clinical care for the Risk relationships observed in the original cohorts were compared with.

Third, in light of some of the existing critique Kirkman et al.

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

For example, which cultural frameworks e. How has economic globalization impacted the importance of cultural distance for firm internationalization?

Management International Review, Springer | IDEAS/RePEc

For example, is distance less important now than it was 25 years ago? Accordingly, the objective of our paper is threefold: Such a combined approach of review, analysis, and theory expansion is particularly important for areas of research that have experienced massive growth and may have produced inconsistent and inconclusive results, as is the case for the work on internationalization.

Moving forward requires making sense of what has been already done in an informed and rigorous way and laying out ideas about future research steps in this area of inquiry. It is more comprehensive and detailed at the same time because we assess the impact of cultural distance on the various stages of the entire internationalization process.

This is different from previous work, which has focused only on specific aspects of internationalization e. We distinguish between pre- and post-investment stage. Postinvestment decisions concern a the integration of the foreign operations through practice transfer from the parent company to the subsidiary e.

This technique also allows us to examine certain contextual and methodological contingencies that could be viewed as boundary conditions of the underlying theoretical model, for example, the measurement approach used for computing cultural distance or the type of home country of the MNC—developed versus emerging market.

Mod-03 Lec-05 Non-Verbal Communication Lecture-05

We have reviewed and coded a total of papers published in a wide range of management and international business journals in the period to Our coding protocol is extensive, assessing both different stages of the process of firm internationalization and different approaches to conceptualizing and measuring cultural distance.

This much bigger sample compared to previous meta-analyses with sample sizes between 14 and 61 papers provides the necessary statistical power to more precisely assess the various stages and outcomes of the process of firm internationalization. The picture that emerges from our study is that cultural distance has a differential effect on the various stages of the internationalization process. It is a significant factor in the ex-ante decisions about location choice a high cultural distance reduces the probability of investment in a country and establishment mode a high cultural distance is associated with firms preferring a greenfield and not an acquisition but does not directly affect the degree of ownership invested.

Regarding the postinvestment stages, cultural distance is associated with greater transfer of home country practices, most likely as a way to bring the parent company and the foreign subsidiary closer together.

Interestingly, we find that cultural distance makes transfer of practices more difficult, but firms that do so benefit from it. Finally, the performance implications of cultural distance are also nuanced.

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

It has a negative impact on subsidiary performance consistent with the liability of foreignness argument but has no effect or even a marginally positive effect on the performance of the whole MNC. We also find that effects can depend on the particular way in which cultural distance is measured Hofstede, GLOBE, Schwartz, or perceptual measures.

As these authors suggested, cultural distance, that is, the difference between the cultures of the home and host countries, is an important consideration in internationalization strategies. Cultural distance affects all stages of the internationalization process, including the preinvestment stage when the company has to make a decision whether to invest in a particular market, what entry mode to use, and how much to invest, as well as the postinvestment stage when the decisions revolve around the degree of integration of the foreign location through common practices as well as the performance outcomes of the international investment.

Appendix A see online supplement presents a set of quotes at least one for each stage and associated strategic decision of the internationalization process that illustrate these effects.

Although the particular arguments about the impact of cultural distance vary by stage and decision, the overarching rationale is that cultural distance leads to higher complexity and costs of doing business abroad. Implications for foreign subsidiary ownership structure.

Management International Review, Google Scholar Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales.

Educational and Psychological Measurement, Google Scholar Link Cyert R. A behavioral theory of the firm. Google Scholar Dalton D. Revisiting the file-drawer problem in meta-analysis: An empirical assessment of published and non-published correlation matrices. Joint venture performance revisited: Japanese foreign subsidiaries worldwide. Google Scholar Delios A.

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

The timing of international expansion: Information, rivalry and imitation among Japanese firms, Journal of Management Studies, Explaining variations in client extra costs between software projects offshored to India. Google Scholar Dikova D. International establishment mode choice: Past, present and future. Google Scholar Dow D. Developing a multidimensional instrument to measure psychic distance stimuli.

Hofstede, Schwartz, or managerial perceptions? The effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises. International Business Review, Toward an eclectic theory of international production: The eclectic paradigm as an envelope for economic and business theories of MNE activity.

International Business Review, 9: Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Google Scholar Duran P. Doing more with less: Innovation input and output in family firms.

Liability of foreignness, institutional distance and ownership strategy. Theories of the multinational enterprise: Choice of foreign market entry modes by service firms: Role of market knowledge. Google Scholar Foss N. A goal-framing perspective on the drivers of value creation. Academy of Management Perspectives, A review and evaluation of meta-analysis practices in management research. Google Scholar Link Ghemawat P. The dynamic of strategy. Google Scholar Ghemawat P. Harvard Business Review, Cultural diversity and the performance of multinational firms.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Google Scholar Gubbi S. Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23 2: How do multinational companies leverage technological competencies?

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

Moving from single to interdependent explanations. Do we need to distance ourselves from the distance concept? Why home and host country context might matter more than cultural distance. Statistical models for meta-analysis. Google Scholar Hennart J.

A transaction costs theory of equity joint ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 9: The transaction costs theory of joint ventures: An empirical study of Japanese subsidiaries in the United States.

International differences in work-related values. Google Scholar Hofstede G. International differences in work-related values 2nd ed. Software of the mind. Google Scholar Holburn G.

multinationality performance relationship a meta analysis of race

Political capabilities, policy risk, and international investment strategy: Evidence from the global electric power generation industry. Google Scholar Hymer S. The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment.

Google Scholar Inglehart R. Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments.

Journal of International Business Studies, 8: The mechanism of internationalisation. International Marketing Review, 7: The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. International Journal of Management Reviews, The use of meta-analysis in international business research: Its current status and suggestions for better practice.

An illustration of the consequences of meta-analysis model choice. Organizational Research Methods, Which resources matter how and where? The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Success of the transnational transfer of organizational practices within multinational companies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota. Google Scholar Kostova T.