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What demands further study: occasions; role of narrators; purpose and function and certainly not experienced in the near impossible task of transforming the oral in the telling of stories and are what make them meaningful and effective in the It is not easy to work out the numerical and qualitative relationship between . Album of the Year is the sixth studio album by American rock band Faith No More , released on A good example of Roli's editing was the song 'Mouth to Mouth. and have relationships over the computer without talking or ever meeting. The more you keep your mouth shut about something like this, the more exciting it can seem. New York, tells Bustle: "In relationships, I believe there is nothing worth lying about," she says. "Accusations are pointless. . "Once your partner loses their trust and faith in you over infidelity, it is a very hard.
They are questions which have their common source in the quest for meaning which has always compelled the human heart. In fact, the answer given to these questions decides the direction which people seek to give to their lives. The Church is no stranger to this journey of discovery, nor could she ever be. It is her duty to serve humanity in different ways, but one way in particular imposes a responsibility of a quite special kind: Men and women have at their disposal an array of resources for generating greater knowledge of truth so that their lives may be ever more human.
Among these is philosophy, which is directly concerned with asking the question of life's meaning and sketching an answer to it. Philosophy emerges, then, as one of noblest of human tasks. Born and nurtured when the human being first asked questions about the reason for things and their purpose, philosophy shows in different modes and forms that the desire for truth is part of human nature itself.
It is an innate property of human reason to ask why things are as they are, even though the answers which gradually emerge are set within a horizon which reveals how the different human cultures are complementary.
Philosophy's powerful influence on the formation and development of the cultures of the West should not obscure the influence it has also had upon the ways of understanding existence found in the East. Every people has its own native and seminal wisdom which, as a true cultural treasure, tends to find voice and develop in forms which are genuinely philosophical.
One example of this is the basic form of philosophical knowledge which is evident to this day in the postulates which inspire national and international legal systems in regulating the life of society. Nonetheless, it is true that a single term conceals a variety of meanings.
Hence the need for a preliminary clarification. Driven by the desire to discover the ultimate truth of existence, human beings seek to acquire those universal elements of knowledge which enable them to understand themselves better and to advance in their own self-realization. These fundamental elements of knowledge spring from the wonder awakened in them by the contemplation of creation: Here begins, then, the journey which will lead them to discover ever new frontiers of knowledge.
Without wonder, men and women would lapse into deadening routine and little by little would become incapable of a life which is genuinely personal. Through philosophy's work, the ability to speculate which is proper to the human intellect produces a rigorous mode of thought; and then in turn, through the logical coherence of the affirmations made and the organic unity of their content, it produces a systematic body of knowledge.
In different cultural contexts and at different times, this process has yielded results which have produced genuine systems of thought. Yet often enough in history this has brought with it the temptation to identify one single stream with the whole of philosophy. In effect, every philosophical system, while it should always be respected in its wholeness, without any instrumentalization, must still recognize the primacy of philosophical enquiry, from which it stems and which it ought loyally to serve.
Although times change and knowledge increases, it is possible to discern a core of philosophical insight within the history of thought as a whole. Consider, for example, the principles of non-contradiction, finality and causality, as well as the concept of the person as a free and intelligent subject, with the capacity to know God, truth and goodness.
Consider as well certain fundamental moral norms which are shared by all.
These are among the indications that, beyond different schools of thought, there exists a body of knowledge which may be judged a kind of spiritual heritage of humanity. It is as if we had come upon an implicit philosophy, as a result of which all feel that they possess these principles, albeit in a general and unreflective way. Precisely because it is shared in some measure by all, this knowledge should serve as a kind of reference-point for the different philosophical schools.
On her part, the Church cannot but set great value upon reason's drive to attain goals which render people's lives ever more worthy. She sees in philosophy the way to come to know fundamental truths about human life. At the same time, the Church considers philosophy an indispensable help for a deeper understanding of faith and for communicating the truth of the Gospel to those who do not yet know it.
Therefore, following upon similar initiatives by my Predecessors, I wish to reflect upon this special activity of human reason. I judge it necessary to do so because, at the present time in particular, the search for ultimate truth seems often to be neglected.
Modern philosophy clearly has the great merit of focusing attention upon man. From this starting-point, human reason with its many questions has developed further its yearning to know more and to know it ever more deeply. Complex systems of thought have thus been built, yielding results in the different fields of knowledge and fostering the development of culture and history.
Anthropology, logic, the natural sciences, history, linguistics and so forth—the whole universe of knowledge has been involved in one way or another.
Yet the positive results achieved must not obscure the fact that reason, in its one-sided concern to investigate human subjectivity, seems to have forgotten that men and women are always called to direct their steps towards a truth which transcends them.
Sundered from that truth, individuals are at the mercy of caprice, and their state as person ends up being judged by pragmatic criteria based essentially upon experimental data, in the mistaken belief that technology must dominate all.
It has happened therefore that reason, rather than voicing the human orientation towards truth, has wilted under the weight of so much knowledge and little by little has lost the capacity to lift its gaze to the heights, not daring to rise to the truth of being. Abandoning the investigation of being, modern philosophical research has concentrated instead upon human knowing.
Rather than make use of the human capacity to know the truth, modern philosophy has preferred to accentuate the ways in which this capacity is limited and conditioned. This has given rise to different forms of agnosticism and relativism which have led philosophical research to lose its way in the shifting sands of widespread scepticism. Recent times have seen the rise to prominence of various doctrines which tend to devalue even the truths which had been judged certain.
A legitimate plurality of positions has yielded to an undifferentiated pluralism, based upon the assumption that all positions are equally valid, which is one of today's most widespread symptoms of the lack of confidence in truth. Even certain conceptions of life coming from the East betray this lack of confidence, denying truth its exclusive character and assuming that truth reveals itself equally in different doctrines, even if they contradict one another.
On this understanding, everything is reduced to opinion; and there is a sense of being adrift. While, on the one hand, philosophical thinking has succeeded in coming closer to the reality of human life and its forms of expression, it has also tended to pursue issues—existential, hermeneutical or linguistic—which ignore the radical question of the truth about personal existence, about being and about God.
Hence we see among the men and women of our time, and not just in some philosophers, attitudes of widespread distrust of the human being's great capacity for knowledge. With a false modesty, people rest content with partial and provisional truths, no longer seeking to ask radical questions about the meaning and ultimate foundation of human, personal and social existence.
In short, the hope that philosophy might be able to provide definitive answers to these questions has dwindled. Sure of her competence as the bearer of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, the Church reaffirms the need to reflect upon truth. In reaffirming the truth of faith, we can both restore to our contemporaries a genuine trust in their capacity to know and challenge philosophy to recover and develop its own full dignity. There is a further reason why I write these reflections. For it is undeniable that this time of rapid and complex change can leave especially the younger generation, to whom the future belongs and on whom it depends, with a sense that they have no valid points of reference.
The need for a foundation for personal and communal life becomes all the more pressing at a time when we are faced with the patent inadequacy of perspectives in which the ephemeral is affirmed as a value and the possibility of discovering the real meaning of life is cast into doubt.
This is why many people stumble through life to the very edge of the abyss without knowing where they are going. At times, this happens because those whose vocation it is to give cultural expression to their thinking no longer look to truth, preferring quick success to the toil of patient enquiry into what makes life worth living.
With its enduring appeal to the search for truth, philosophy has the great responsibility of forming thought and culture; and now it must strive resolutely to recover its original vocation. This is why I have felt both the need and the duty to address this theme so that, on the threshold of the third millennium of the Christian era, humanity may come to a clearer sense of the great resources with which it has been endowed and may commit itself with renewed courage to implement the plan of salvation of which its history is part.
Underlying all the Church's thinking is the awareness that she is the bearer of a message which has its origin in God himself cf. The knowledge which the Church offers to man has its origin not in any speculation of her own, however sublime, but in the word of God which she has received in faith cf.
At the origin of our life of faith there is an encounter, unique in kind, which discloses a mystery hidden for long ages cf. As the source of love, God desires to make himself known; and the knowledge which the human being has of God perfects all that the human mind can know of the meaning of life. Restating almost to the letter the teaching of the First Vatican Council's Constitution Dei Filius, and taking into account the principles set out by the Council of Trent, the Second Vatican Council's Constitution Dei Verbum pursued the age-old journey of understanding faith, reflecting on Revelation in the light of the teaching of Scripture and of the entire Patristic tradition.
On the basis of mistaken and very widespread assertions, the rationalist critique of the time attacked faith and denied the possibility of any knowledge which was not the fruit of reason's natural capacities. This obliged the Council to reaffirm emphatically that there exists a knowledge which is peculiar to faith, surpassing the knowledge proper to human reason, which nevertheless by its nature can discover the Creator.
This knowledge expresses a truth based upon the very fact of God who reveals himself, a truth which is most certain, since God neither deceives nor wishes to deceive. The First Vatican Council teaches, then, that the truth attained by philosophy and the truth of Revelation are neither identical nor mutually exclusive: With regard to the source, because we know in one by natural reason, in the other by divine faith.
Contemplating Jesus as revealer, the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council stressed the salvific character of God's Revelation in history, describing it in these terms: This plan of Revelation is realized by deeds and words having an inner unity: God's Revelation is therefore immersed in time and history. The truth about himself and his life which God has entrusted to humanity is immersed therefore in time and history; and it was declared once and for all in the mystery of Jesus of Nazareth.
The Constitution Dei Verbum puts it eloquently: For he sent his Son, the eternal Word who enlightens all people, so that he might dwell among them and tell them the innermost realities about God cf. Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh, sent as 'a human being to human beings', 'speaks the words of God' Jn 3: To see Jesus is to see his Father Jn For this reason, Jesus perfected Revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making himself present and manifesting himself: History therefore becomes the arena where we see what God does for humanity.
God comes to us in the things we know best and can verify most easily, the things of our everyday life, apart from which we cannot understand ourselves. In the Incarnation of the Son of God we see forged the enduring and definitive synthesis which the human mind of itself could not even have imagined: The truth communicated in Christ's Revelation is therefore no longer confined to a particular place or culture, but is offered to every man and woman who would welcome it as the word which is the absolutely valid source of meaning for human life.
Now, in Christ, all have access to the Father, since by his Death and Resurrection Christ has bestowed the divine life which the first Adam had refused cf. Through this Revelation, men and women are offered the ultimate truth about their own life and about the goal of history.
Where might the human being seek the answer to dramatic questions such as pain, the suffering of the innocent and death, if not in the light streaming from the mystery of Christ's Passion, Death and Resurrection? Reason before the mystery It should nonetheless be kept in mind that Revelation remains charged with mystery.
It is true that Jesus, with his entire life, revealed the countenance of the Father, for he came to teach the secret things of God.
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Faith alone makes it possible to penetrate the mystery in a way that allows us to understand it coherently. Faith is said first to be an obedient response to God. This implies that God be acknowledged in his divinity, transcendence and supreme freedom. By the authority of his absolute transcendence, God who makes himself known is also the source of the credibility of what he reveals. By faith, men and women give their assent to this divine testimony.
This means that they acknowledge fully and integrally the truth of what is revealed because it is God himself who is the guarantor of that truth. They can make no claim upon this truth which comes to them as gift and which, set within the context of interpersonal communication, urges reason to be open to it and to embrace its profound meaning.
This is why the Church has always considered the act of entrusting oneself to God to be a moment of fundamental decision which engages the whole person. In that act, the intellect and the will display their spiritual nature, enabling the subject to act in a way which realizes personal freedom to the full.
Indeed, it is faith that allows individuals to give consummate expression to their own freedom. Put differently, freedom is not realized in decisions made against God. For how could it be an exercise of true freedom to refuse to be open to the very reality which enables our self-realization? Men and women can accomplish no more important act in their lives than the act of faith; it is here that freedom reaches the certainty of truth and chooses to live in that truth.
To assist reason in its effort to understand the mystery there are the signs which Revelation itself presents. These serve to lead the search for truth to new depths, enabling the mind in its autonomous exploration to penetrate within the mystery by use of reason's own methods, of which it is rightly jealous. Yet these signs also urge reason to look beyond their status as signs in order to grasp the deeper meaning which they bear.
They contain a hidden truth to which the mind is drawn and which it cannot ignore without destroying the very signs which it is given. In a sense, then, we return to the sacramental character of Revelation and especially to the sign of the Eucharist, in which the indissoluble unity between the signifier and signified makes it possible to grasp the depths of the mystery. From the teaching of the two Vatican Councils there also emerges a genuinely novel consideration for philosophical learning.
Revelation has set within history a point of reference which cannot be ignored if the mystery of human life is to be known. Yet this knowledge refers back constantly to the mystery of God which the human mind cannot exhaust but can only receive and embrace in faith. Between these two poles, reason has its own specific field in which it can enquire and understand, restricted only by its finiteness before the infinite mystery of God.
Revelation therefore introduces into our history a universal and ultimate truth which stirs the human mind to ceaseless effort; indeed, it impels reason continually to extend the range of its knowledge until it senses that it has done all in its power, leaving no stone unturned.
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To assist our reflection on this point we have one of the most fruitful and important minds in human history, a point of reference for both philosophy and theology: In his Proslogion, the Archbishop of Canterbury puts it this way: I wanted to rid myself of that thought because, by filling my mind, it distracted me from other problems from which I could gain some profit; but it would then present itself with ever greater insistence Woe is me, one of the poor children of Eve, far from God, what did I set out to do and what have I accomplished?
What was I aiming for and how far have I got? What did I aspire to and what did I long for? O Lord, you are not only that than which nothing greater can be conceived non solum es quo maius cogitari nequitbut you are greater than all that can be conceived quiddam maius quam cogitari possit As absolute truth, it summons human beings to be open to the transcendent, whilst respecting both their autonomy as creatures and their freedom.
At this point the relationship between freedom and truth is complete, and we understand the full meaning of the Lord's words: Christian Revelation is the true lodestar of men and women as they strive to make their way amid the pressures of an immanentist habit of mind and the constrictions of a technocratic logic. It is the ultimate possibility offered by God for the human being to know in all its fullness the seminal plan of love which began with creation.
To those wishing to know the truth, if they can look beyond themselves and their own concerns, there is given the possibility of taking full and harmonious possession of their lives, precisely by following the path of truth.
Here the words of the Book of Deuteronomy are pertinent: It is not in heaven that you should say, 'Who will go up for us to heaven, and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?
This text finds an echo in the famous dictum of the holy philosopher and theologian Augustine: In interiore homine habitat veritas. It appears instead as something gratuitous, which itself stirs thought and seeks acceptance as an expression of love. This revealed truth is set within our history as an anticipation of that ultimate and definitive vision of God which is reserved for those who believe in him and seek him with a sincere heart.
The ultimate purpose of personal existence, then, is the theme of philosophy and theology alike. Sacred Scripture indicates with remarkably clear cues how deeply related are the knowledge conferred by faith and the knowledge conferred by reason; and it is in the Wisdom literature that this relationship is addressed most explicitly.
What is striking about these biblical texts, if they are read without prejudice, is that they embody not only the faith of Israel, but also the treasury of cultures and civilizations which have long vanished. As if by special design, the voices of Egypt and Mesopotamia sound again and certain features common to the cultures of the ancient Near East come to life in these pages which are so singularly rich in deep intuition.
It is no accident that, when the sacred author comes to describe the wise man, he portrays him as one who loves and seeks the truth: He pursues her like a hunter and lies in wait on her paths. He peers through her windows and listens at her doors. For the inspired writer, as we see, the desire for knowledge is characteristic of all people.
It is true that ancient Israel did not come to knowledge of the world and its phenomena by way of abstraction, as did the Greek philosopher or the Egyptian sage.
Still less did the good Israelite understand knowledge in the way of the modern world which tends more to distinguish different kinds of knowing. Nonetheless, the biblical world has made its own distinctive contribution to the theory of knowledge.
What is distinctive in the biblical text is the conviction that there is a profound and indissoluble unity between the knowledge of reason and the knowledge of faith. The world and all that happens within it, including history and the fate of peoples, are realities to be observed, analysed and assessed with all the resources of reason, but without faith ever being foreign to the process.
Faith intervenes not to abolish reason's autonomy nor to reduce its scope for action, but solely to bring the human being to understand that in these events it is the God of Israel who acts. Thus the world and the events of history cannot be understood in depth without professing faith in the God who is at work in them.
Faith sharpens the inner eye, opening the mind to discover in the flux of events the workings of Providence. Here the words of the Book of Proverbs are pertinent: This is to say that with the light of reason human beings can know which path to take, but they can follow that path to its end, quickly and unhindered, only if with a rightly tuned spirit they search for it within the horizon of faith.
Therefore, reason and faith cannot be separated without diminishing the capacity of men and women to know themselves, the world and God in an appropriate way.
There is thus no reason for competition of any kind between reason and faith: Again the Book of Proverbs points in this direction when it exclaims: In their respective worlds, God and the human being are set within a unique relationship. In God there lies the origin of all things, in him is found the fullness of the mystery, and in this his glory consists; to men and women there falls the task of exploring truth with their reason, and in this their nobility consists.
The Psalmist adds one final piece to this mosaic when he says in prayer: If you used the same ladle every time—and God did—every person will get the same amount of soup. You have the measure of faith. No born-again believer has more faith than any other; some just do a better job of appropriating what they have been given.
He spoke creation into existence, and the substance of His faith manifested into what we can now see. The Word of God has unlimited power. Each word is like a little capsule filled with faith waiting for us believers to release it in our hearts and speak it with our mouths.
Everything we see was created by words, and it is the very Word of God that holds the universe together Heb. Therefore, everything we see will respond to faith-filled words. They have to respond because words are the parent force. In other words, the way that you think controls the way that you talk. And if you understand that your words have power, then you understand why you can be hung by your tongue.
Thank God that our words have to be mixed with faith and that we have to believe them from our hearts. But this should help us see a powerful truth. Only a few instances can be quoted, but these can be followed up in general works on African stories. Examples and discussion of other variants of the accumulation or ritornelle st Beyond this, however, there are many differences both of detail and of general treatment. Thus one of the most common plots is the tug of war into which a small animal induces two larger ones to enter in the belief that they are pulling against him.
The small animal involved, however, is not everywhere the same. It may be—to mention only a few instances—a hare e. The two large animals who are tricked are most commonly an elephant and a hippopotamus, but a rhinoceros is also sometimes mentioned.
Another common plot describes the aggressor out-tricked: Among the various characters involved are: There is the story also familiar from the Arabian Nights: But the actual messengers named, the title of God, and even the exact framework take different forms in different areas.
The plot offers explanations for the way birds of prey swoop down and carry off chickens from the mother hen. According to the story, this is in return for a debt the hen owes from the old days.
In both cases the version given is chosen for its brevity; many longer stories have been recorded from each society. The Vulture and the Hen Long ago the hen and the vulture used to live on excellent terms, helping each other at any time they needed a hand to procure their domestic necessities. One day the hen thought of borrowing a razor from the vulture, to shave the little ones. So the hen went to see the vulture and said: The vulture listened to the hen with great concern and, after a short silence, said: To-morrow perhaps I might need your help as well, and we must help each other.Mouth To Mouth by Faith No More
However, you must remember one thing. You know what that razor means to me. I have no other income except the rent of that razor; that is to say, that razor is my field, whence I get my daily food. The hen was very glad of the favour, and as soon as she arrived home, made arrangements to be shaved by another woman.
The following morning she also shaved her two little ones, so that the whole family was now shining like the moon. The work over, instead of immediately returning the razor to the owner, she put it in a leather purse, which was hanging in a corner of the hut. The days passed, and passed away like the water under the bridge, but the hen never thought again of returning the razor to the vulture.
She forgot it completely. The vulture grew impatient, and deeply resented in his heart the unkindness, nay, the ingratitude of the hen. Pressed by necessity, he decided to go personally to the hen and demand his razor.
- Oral Literature in Africa
I really intended to return your razor very soon, but I put it in my leather bag, and forgot it completely. You have deprived me of my sustenance for many days. The hen rushed into the hut to fetch the razor. She plunged her hand into the leather bag, but alas! She was very shocked at the unpleasant discovery.
She started searching on the floor to see if by chance it had dropped from the bag, but there was no finding it. Tired and defeated, she came out and, imploring, said: Have mercy on me! I want my razor back!
The poor hen spent all the day searching and searching, but nothing came to light. She demolished her hut, and started searching in the roof-grass, among the rabble of the walls, between the poles, in the ashes, and even in the rubbish pit; but nothing was found.
The following day the vulture came to see the results of the searching. He found the hen still scratching the ground among a heap of dry grass and ox dung; but no razor was yet discovered. For to-day you must give me a chicken. So the vulture flew away with a chicken gripped within his talons under its breast. The following day he returned to the hen. She was still scratching the ground; but she could not see any razor. Another chicken went with the vulture.
And the same happened in the following days until to-day. That is the reason why the hen is always scratching the ground, and the vulture swooping on chickens even in our days. The hen is still searching for the razor, and the vulture compensating himself for its loss.
He borrowed that money. Now the eagle— he died leaving his children alone. But he left a message with them: He looked and looked; but he could not find him. One day he went and sat down where they pound the rice. He was sitting there. When he saw the hen standing there, eating the rice, he asked her: I want him to return it… 10 Do you think I will be able to find the finch? The eagle got there.
He went and hid. The finch alighted and began to pick at the ground, searching for his food. The eagle swooped down. What a long time I have spent looking for you. Now here you are today. I have been looking for the hen here but could not find her.
And all the time you have been looking for me and could not find me! The eagle did not believe the finch. They went and stood near the wall where the finch lived. As for the hen-family—just look here at where my children sleep.
He turned them over—and over—and over. He could only see feathers. You spoke the truth. That is why hens are carried off by eagles. That is the story. Both tales give an aetiological explanation of the present misfortunes of chickens and trace this back to a debt or alleged debt by the hen; but the framework, the detailed course of the plot, even the implied evaluations of the characters are very different.
The subject-matter and literary structure of each story can only be fully appreciated as distinct from appearing as a catalogue item with a detailed knowledge of the social and literary experience from which it springs.
On plots in Bantu stories, see especially Werner Most familiar of all are the animals, particularly the wily hare, tortoise, spider, and their larger dupes. But there are also many stories about people, ordinary and extraordinary, some about legendary heroes or ancestors, and a few which recount the actions of various supernatural beings.
They are also occasionally woven round other personified objects like, say, the parts of the body, vegetables, minerals, the heavenly bodies, or abstractions like hunger, death, or truth. These various characters do not usually appear in strictly separate cycles, but in many cases are depicted as interacting among themselves: The same general plots may be centred round different types of characters in different areas, or even on different occasions in the same society. In other cases it may be rather ambiguous whether the central figure is really animal or really human, and it may appear in different guises on different occasions.
That it is not possible to regard these general types as clear-cut categories will be clear both from the way the characters overlap and from the general remarks in the previous chapter on the difficulties of producing clear typologies in the case of such flexible and variable material. However, in view of the nature of the sources available and for mere convenience of discussion, we can speak of animal tales, tales about people, and so on, at the same time insisting that in view of the overlapping and impermanence of any given story, these must not be regarded as categories in any generally valid typology of African narratives.
II 14When we consider the many animal tales that have been collected from Africa, the main factor that has struck most observers is the great emphasis on animal tricksters—small, wily, and tricky animals who cheat and outdo the larger and more powerful beasts.
The jackal may also occur in storie The tortoise predominates in the easterly regions of the west coast, in an area extending at least from the Yoruba of Nigeria across to the Fang and others of West Equatorial Africa. The tortoise also comes into other areas in a lesser way; among the Ila of Zambia, to give one example, the main cycle of tales are about Sulwe, the hare, but there are also a number about Fulwe, the tortoise. There are also a few other favourite trickster characters who occur often enough in stories but without any clear-cut geographical domain: See the analysis of this in Horton The spider, for instance, though often wily, is also, in some areas at least, depicted as stupid, gluttonous, boastful, and ineffective, not infrequently outdone by his own wife.
There are also instances of the same image being applied to the tortoise.