Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
A timeline of the rocky relationship between the two nuclear-armed South Asian neighbours. /48 - The first Indo-Pak war over Kashmir is fought, after armed tribesmen .. - On May 27, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi holds talks with Al Jazeera Forum · Al Jazeera Film Festival · Al Jazeera Hotel Partners. India and Pakistan have had a complex history. Their Facebook status in this regard explains their relationship as "it's complicated." When India. Although films showing good relationship between India and Pakistan have been in India or migrated out of what is now Pakistan to India4 (Ranjan, ).
The result of the first war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir was Pakistan controlling 37pc of the area while India controlled 63pc. The Kashmiris controlled 0pc. The Maharaja decided to word a protest in Thai — so much so that at one point even Thailand began claiming sovereignty over Kashmir. Three more wars were fought between Pakistan and India.
One was in AD, when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kach, a sparingly inhabited area along the Pak-India border. The Scottish colonialists had called this area Leg of Lamb. Pigeons were used for this purpose. Pakistani spy pigeon — The proof After threats of intervention by Thailand, Pakistan and India agreed to an UN-sponsored cease-fire and withdrew their pigeons from the sky. But Indo-Pakistan relations deteriorated once again when in BC civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the beef-munching West Pakistanis against the fish-eating East Pakistanis who were demanding greater autonomy and more gravy.
5 off-beat films that explore Indo-Pak relationship perfectly | bollywood | Hindustan Times
Bengal nationalists were being backed by the Indians, so when Pakistan attacked Indian airfields and Thai restaurants in Kashmir, India attacked both East and West Pakistan after it could not figure out where on earth North and South Pakistan were.
Many believed it was a Zino-Zoroastrian conspiracy plotted by a diabolic Soviet agent, Malala Petrov, with whose DNA, Polish agent, Malala Yousafzai, will be spawned 25 years later to discredit pious men. Zulfikar Ali Toto emerged as the new leader of Pakistan. Narendra Modi's Pakistan policy is wayward, inconsistent and unplanned.
It is running out of options. The ruling party has no tangible solution to lower temperatures in Kashmir either. The media carried a curious little item two days ago. A group of 47 blameless schoolchildren from Lahore invited by a Delhi NGO for a visit were hastily sent back hours after their arrival.
The foreign ministry spokesman said their visit was mistimed. A tiny window had opened, but it was slammed shut. Apart from excellent PR, if the Indian government had provided them security and hospitality, it would have spelt India's confidence and maturity and perhaps touched a few hearts and minds on both sides of the border. But in the tortured Indo-Pak relationship -- of one step forward and two backwards -- the gruesome and grotesque go hand in hand.
The communal riots take place in parts of India at regular intervals substantiates this further. Some other movies with similar themes with a focus on women are Gadar-Ek Prem KathaEarth In these films, the female protagonists, irrespective of their religion are strong, positive characters shown as victims of men who are shown to engage in violence as a way of dishonoring their enemy Perckel, Tumultuous years to Calm period: The first casualties of the war were trade and commerce between the two countries.
Shortly after, on September 6, customs officers at Wagah post near Lahore became the first civilian prisoners of war, and banks in both countries were seized as enemy properties Zafar Pakistan even stopped screening of Bollywood movies in its theatres.
The situation was so grim that not even a traditional barat wedding processions was allowed across the border. This affected alliances and marriages between the same ethnic group swhich existed pre-partition, now living on either sides of the border.
But these changes had little influence on Bollywood, which continued to make films on social issues, not yet pointing fingers at Pakistan.
By s Bollywood was ready to name and blame Pakistan. A Train to Pakistan was also a novel written by Kushwant Singh inturned into a movie, about a hindu man who risks his life to save the love of his life, who is a muslim woman.
The movie used an old plot tactic of twin brothers being separated at birth, one being raised a Muslim in Pakistan and another in India raised as a Hindu.
Between and the relationship between India and Pakistan remained, more or less, calm with some tensions inand However it was during the calm period a classic was produced that till this day commands respect in understanding the state of minorities. Sathyu, released inGaram Hawa, the recipient of Nargis Dutt award ofshowed a Muslim family, that disheartened by prejudice against Muslims in post-partition India wishes to migrate to Pakistan, but later decides to stay in the country and become participating citizens Khurana, Balraj Sahni who played the protagonist, a Hindu survivor of partition himself, was lauded for his brilliant performance.
The movie was an attempt to make Hindus understand the alienation experienced by some Muslims and to make Indian Muslims as a community feel welcome. Since then both countries, have spend millions every year to maintain their respective check-post on the glacier. Every year hundreds of soldiers, from both sides, either lose their lives or become victims of this stand-off.
Many rounds of talks have been arranged to resolve the impasse but so far its been futile. In India carried out military exercise called Brasstack near international border with Pakistan in Rajasthan. This led to tensions between two countries. Pakistan too moved its Army to face the challenge. In Pakistani Army, too, carried out its exercise code named operation Zaib-e -Mobin.
Situation did not get very tense. Post-economic reform when Indian government was appealing to Non-resident Indians11 NRIs to invest to boost the economy, Bollywood responded with several movies that either had NRIs as protagonists or movies that were entirely set in foreign, mostly English speaking lands.
While only pre LPG policies, the NRIs were chided for leaving their homeland and even considered traitors, this change of scene in the mainstream Indian cinema appealed to the NRIs who were eager to reconnect with their home-soil and now found themselves being represented as main characters Uppal, During the early years of LPG, Pakistan and its presence as the other was put on the back burner. In the movie, scoring over the Chinese is presented as a patriotic duty for Non-Resident Indians Raghavendra, Even the parallel cinema, which was rooted in realism, and gave serious competition to mainstream cinema 11 It is important to note while technically this term applies to those who still hold Indian citizenship, even though they live abroad, culturally NRI is a generic term for those Indians who spent formative years of their life in India and now live overseas, regardless of which citizenship they hold.
In fact, there was even a softening towards Pakistan with movies such as Train to Pakistan and Pinjar The movies centered on depicting both communities as equal victims of circumstances that followed the division of India. With the rise of global militancy, Pakistan turned into an on-screen hub of terrorism for Indian cinema, and especially so after the terrorist attack on World Trade Centre WTC in New York on 11 September The sentiments of the Indian middle class received an on-screen nod during the rest of the decade in s when Bollywood produced some successful nationalistic films pointing fingers at Pakistan for foulplay, such as Gadar-Ek Prem Katha and Maa Tujhe Salam Kumar However, onwards, when the two countries decided to re-engage in a composite dialogue to resolve their bilateral disputes a few films portrayed Pakistan in a peaceful light.
Director Farhan Akhtar clarified that Lakshyamerely used the war as a backdrop to explore individual struggle of the protagonist who lacks any direction and finds it in serving his nation by joining the army. Until Mumbai mayhem, the Pakistani attacks in Mumbai India, on November 11, there was a general sense of hope for peace between the two countries. Several movies, with a much toned-down anti-Pakistan 12 Actors such as Nassirudin Shah, Om Puri and Anupam Kher were leading art film actors of their time.
Actors such as Irrfan Khan or Nawazuddin Siddiquie have arrived in the industry after the demise of Parallel cinema and therefore have established themselves mainly as character artists. In these movies, people from both the countries were shown as victims of circumstances without much choice. Some filmmakers completely reshot parts of their films to match the mood between the two nations. During the same time period some movies dealt with complicated subject of divided loyalties and multiple identities of the people affected by partition.
Even Pakistan responded with Khamosh Pani a Pakistani film directed by Sabina Samar, deals with how a Sikh woman abandoned by her Indian family during partition accepts Islam to save her life, but is rejected by the very community she calls home when decades later she is found conversing with her brother from India who is trying reconnect with his sister after years of separation.
List of films banned in Pakistan
The locale was Punjab14 in Pakistan but since the movie takes place much later late s and early sit was also symbolic of what happened on a larger scale inthat still lives in unresolved conflicts, unhealed wounds, the rise of extremism, and unachieved aspirations of women who were the forced to abandon much Rumi, Scars of partition were revisited when Indian television became more commercialized allowing for bigger production budgets.
The s was a memorable decade for the Indian television, since color television was introduced in when India hosted South Asian games, following which content generation for television increased 14 Punjab was one of the states that was divided during the Partition of India. Tamas, based on a novel of the same name, about Hindu- Muslim riots, and directed by Govind Nilhani, was a breakthrough mini-series created especially for television in Another TV series like Buniyaad, also aired in the s, but it was an 18 month long soap-opera which did not focus on hindu-muslim tension, instead showed the trials and tribulations of a Punjabi family that migrated to India.
Muslims of Two Kinds: Bengali director Ritwik Ghatak made some movies centering on Bengal Film analyst Omar Adil, attributes this lopsided represntation by cinema to the fact that not only were the mainstream moviemakers based in Bombay Bollywoodbut most of the those affected by events and cinema artists e.
However, the fact that there was a much larger migration and more violence on the Punjab side should also be considered. The political status of Muslims in India is far better than the Hindus in Pakistan because of strong secular institutions whose foundations are based in Indian constitution In addition, the newly migrated muslim to Pakistan also received a second citizen status, by the name of Muhajir migrants.
These exclusive identities have created a sense of alienation among many Cited in Ahmed In post liberatlized and deregulated India since the s, there has been an onscreen distinction between Indian muslims as patriots and traitors. This intra-community dynamic has been exploited by many directors, questioning the loyalty of Indian muslims towards India.
The City Under Threat have followed this story line. The movie is a story of a Jat- Sikh who marries a Muslim girl Sakina a daughter of a Pakistani politician to protect her from post-partition violence, after she is left behind in India while her family flees to Pakistan. Later when Sakina is brought back to Pakistan under the pretense of family reunion, the protagonist single-handedly fights Pakistani army and social groups, to re-join with his wife.
Interestingly, in the movie Muslim Sakina married to a Sikh, shows reverence for mangalsutra and vermillion17, a traditional mark of a married woman in Hindu-Sikh tradition.
Gadaralong with Borderwhich dramatized the role of Punjab regiment, comprised of Sikh Army officers and soldiers in India- Pakistan war, helped Sikhs regain a trusted place which had been damaged, after Mrs.
Shahrukh Khan, nicknamed King Khan by his 17 Mangalsutra, meaning auspicious thread, can be a necklace or a merely a few beads strung on sacred thread, which are a sign of a married Hindu woman. Vermillion or Sindur is the red powder a woman wears in her hair parting, symbolizing her marital status. In the event a woman becomes a widow, she ceases to use sindoor, ornamental jewellery and overtly colourful clothes.
His statement was considered a testimony to his siding with Pakistan. Similarly, in after the BJP led NDA government formed a majority government, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad VHP and similar organizations started a movement against love jihad, which alleges that young muslim boys target non-muslim girls for love and marriage with an intention of converting them.
Saif Ali Khan, one of the least popular Khans, now married to a Hindu, Kareena Kapoor, from the first family of Indian cinema was also labeled a love jihadist. A Wednesday released in shortly before Mumbai Mayhem on November 11,is a good example of showing two kinds of Muslims.
The movie with a plot based on terrorism showed a patriotic Muslim officer fighting Muslim terrorists in India. Late s The movies with a focus on post-partition relationship usually communicate the idea of peace and harmony, between the two countries were made mostly during the calm period between and Refugeeand Veer Zara are two such examples.
In both of these movies the female protagonists are Pakistanis and male characters are Hindus from India.
Bollywood films based on Indo-Pak relations
Some movies that have maintained that order of thinking have been quite successful at the box office showing public acceptance. Hindi 16 cinema has sided with the Indian state on the issue of terrorism communicating and convincing the masses that Pakistan is the perpetrator of terrorism related acts in India.
Reasons for Popularity of Bollywood in Pakistan: Mughal-e-Azam was the last Hindi movie screened in Pakistan. In absence of hard power, soft power cannot have much influence.