Gods and Humans Your appearance is no different from mine; there is nothing strange in you features (Gilgamesh ). In the Epic of Gilgamesh the. What seems to be a perfectly harmonious relationship between men seeking protection and Providence from their guardian gods is actually quite complicated . The Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient poem about a king of Uruk who was one- third god. The gods respond by creating a wild man named Enkidu to distract him. of the Akkadian Ea), the god of water, is not allowed to warn the humans, but.
Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to the Cedar Forest. They have many dreams along the way and talk about how scared they are. Gilgamesh and Enkidu, with the help of the sun-god Shamash, kill Humbaba. The goddess Ishtar propositions Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh rejects her, pointing out that her previous lovers did not fare well. Ishtar complains to her father who basically tells her, "Well, he's got a point.
Enkidu and Gilgamesh kill Gugalanna, and when Ishtar throws a fit, Enkidu throws the bull's hindquarter at her. Enkidu has a dream that he will die, and curses everyone, including the temple prostitute who apparently gave him a venereal disease.
The sun-god Shamash reminds him that Shamhat civilized him and introduced him to Gilgamesh, so he takes his curse back. Shamash also tells him that when he dies, Gilgamesh will honor him beyond compare. Comforted, Enkidu sickens and dies.
Gilgamesh mourns his friend with great despair and ceremony. In fear of death, Gilgamesh decides to find Utnapishtim, a legendary man who survived a great flood and received eternal life. After foolishly destroying the stone giants who could have taken him to Utnapishtim, Gilgamesh cuts down trees and uses them as punting poles to cross the Waters of Death.
When he arrives at the other side, Utnapishtim tells him he's even more foolish to desire eternal life. Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood. The gods decided to flood the world and destroy all the people, but the god Ea told Utnapishtim to build a boat big enough for his family and the animals.
The boat was to be covered with pitch and bitumen. Utnapishtim, his family, the craftsmen who built the boat, and many animals entered the boat. The rains lasted six or possibly seven days, killing all the other people.
The boat landed on a mountain, and Utnapishtim released a dove, a swallow, and a raven before opening the door and letting everyone out. Enlil, who created the flood, was livid that there were survivors, but Ishtar and Ea condemned Enlil. Enlil gave Utnapishtim and his wife eternal life. Utnapishtim shows Gilgamesh that he cannot grant eternal life but tells him how he can recover his youth.
Gilgamesh goes to the bottom of the ocean to get the youth-giving plant, but a snake eats it. Gilgamesh gives up the quest for eternal life and contents himself with his legacy—the great walls of Uruk he had built. It's very possible that the actual flood story was not originally included in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This tablet is probably not original. Enkidu is alive and goes to the Netherworld on an errand for Gilgamesh.
He is trapped there until Ea and Shamash help his ghost to escape. Gilgamesh asks Enkidu about the Netherworld. In the Atrahasis Epic, Enlil, the god of wind, uses famine and drought to control the overpopulation of humans in other versions it's unclear if the cause of the gods' distress is overpopulation or some unnamed iniquity. Enlil finally decides to send a catastrophic flood. Enki the Sumerian version of the Akkadian Eathe god of water, is not allowed to warn the humans, but he does tell Atrahasis "Extremely Wise" to build a large boat covered in bitumen.
Although Enlil is angry that Enki interfered, he agrees to find other ways to control human population.Gilgamesh, The Sumerian Demigod: Two-Thirds God and One-Third Human
Some believe that the Gilgamesh flood story was a later paraphrase of the Atrahasis Epic. The Sumerian creation myth also includes a story of a flood. Ziusudra Sumerian for the Akkadian Utnapishtim, meaning "he who laid hold on life of distant days" is warned by Enki to build a boat. The story is much the same, except that the ship floats down the Euphrates to an island, possibly Bahrain.
The names given to the Noah figure are confusing, but they are linked: The biblical flood story, found in Genesishas many similarities. In both cases, it was a global flood sent by God or gods to control people. God or gods contacted the hero and told him to build an ark of wood covered in pitch. The ark was very large and contained specimens of all animals.
The hero determined the end of the ordeal by sending out birds. There are differences, as well.
Of course, the Genesis story speaks of God, while the Akkadian mentions several gods. The Akkadian ark was square, while the biblical ark was rectangular. The Akkadian hero saved not only his family, but craftsmen who worked on the ark as well. The biblical rains lasted forty days and nights, while the Akkadian version says six. And the arks landed on different mountains. What is the relationship between the Akkadian flood myths and the biblical account?
Scholars aren't exactly sure. Secular scholars claim that because remnants of the Akkadian account pre-date the writing of Genesis, Moses or another author copied from the Akkadian story.
But biblical scholars point out that there is no record of a complete Akkadian flood myth until BC, long after Genesis was written. Other scholars claim that the Akkadian myth copied Genesis, but this is highly unlikely.
Genesis was written by BC while the first Gilgamesh story that references the global flood was apparently from BC. It's much more probable that both stories derived from the same source—an actual global flood. It is an interesting exercise to speculate how the stories may be linked.
Perhaps modern scholars' dating of Gilgamesh the man was wrong, and he really did meet Noah.
The first occasion involves the creation of and subsequent destruction of Enkidu. For the gods, Gilgameshs unchecked power on earth is a threat to harmony as well as their authority.
Consequently, it is in the gods best interest to suppress Gilgameshs growing strength. Hence, the goddess Aruru creates Enkidu, a mirror image of Gilgamesh, hoping to use him as deterrence for Gilgamesh. However, Gilgameshs ultimate goal is to consolidate more power, not to lose it due to divine obstacles. He convinces Enkidu to become his sidekick as they battle Humbaba. At beginning of the journey, Enkidu is reluctant to fight, but Gilgamesh gives him numerous encouragements.
He tells Enkidu not to speak like a coward LaWall 20 and to let [his] courage be roused by the battle to come LaWall Gilgamesh is essentially instilling his own arrogance and the vainglorious pursuit of power into Enkidu, and consequently at the end of their adventure, Enkidu possesses a similar temperament as Gilgamesh. It is he who suggests that that Humbaba must be killed when the beast begs for mercy.
What is the Epic of Gilgamesh? What relation does it have with the biblical Flood?
Therefore, Gilgamesh is twice as powerful with the companionship of Enkidu, using the gods divine obstacle for his own interest. Nevertheless, the gods are not deterred and realizes that the only way to ultimately suppress Gilgamesh is to kill Enkidu. As a direct result, Gilgamesh, whose pervious disregard for death is replaced with complete fear.
He becomes a tormented soul, a shell of his former glory. All in all, Gilgamesh and the gods are essentially playing a tug-of-war over Enkidu, they both want to use him as a way to satisfy their own goals.
The second occasion involves Gilgameshs conflict with the equally egocentric Ishtar. At first, Ishtar offers to marry Gilgamesh, a demand that is rudely rejected as the arrogant Gilgamesh defames Ishtar for her treachery toward her previous lovers. For the first time, the egotistical nature of both man and god is exposed simultaneously. The goddess has repeatedly harmed her lovers without regard for their wellbeing, acts that she later openly admit to her father as abominable behaviourfoul and hideous Lawall In fact, her behaviors are not much different than the acts of violence that Gilgamesh ruthlessly commits at the beginning of the epic; they both act out of self-interests without regards for others.
Instead of showing penitence for her vile deeds, Ishtar seeks revenge. She releases the Bull of Heaven in an attempt to destroy Gilgamesh and thus heal her bruised ego. However, in the process, hundred young men fell down to death Lawall 25all innocent victims that must perish in vain so Ishtar can achieve her frivolous interest of punishing Gilgamesh.
Ironically, Gilgamesh, the intended target, survives the attack and defeats the Bull of Heaven with help from Enkidu. Hence, the event set an important precedence, Gilgamesh has defeated a heavenly creature, and thus it will be difficult for the gods to confront Gilgamesh with direct force. Overall, Gilgameshs conflict with Ishtar demonstrates that the gods are equally capable of committing repugnant acts as men in order to satisfy their own ego.
The third ocassion involves Gilgameshs pursuit of immortality. After Enkidus demise, Gilgamesh realizes his ultimate weakness, the vulnerability to death.
He laments about how the end of life is sorrow Lawall 28 and admits that he is ultimately afraid of death Lawall In the process of mourning, Gilgamesh develops his selfish need to acquire the secret of immortality from Utnapishtim.
When Gilgamesh travels next to the sea on his journey to find Utnapishtim she meets the goddess Siduri, who comments on the pointlessness of Gilgameshs journey. She states, when the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retain for their own keeping Lawall This statement is especially important since it reveals the selfish nature of gods, in order for them to establish an aura of superiority over men, even great ones such as Gilgamesh; they must keep the secrets of immortality to themselves.
Consequently, Gilgamesh can never overcome the ultimate folly that is associated with his humanness. No matter how much glory and power he has while he is living, the gods will always supersede him in status and he must inevitably face death. Overall, the disagreeing interests between Gilgamesh and the gods fuel the conflict in the epic; Gilgamesh wants glory, power, and most importantly immortality to satisfy his immense ego, while the gods want obedience and respect.