Dutch japanese relationship with nature

BBC - History - World Wars: Japan's Quest for Empire

dutch japanese relationship with nature

The thesis as an investigation into how to translate the Japanese sensibility of building in relation to nature to the Dutch context in a nature area. The first Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan was the "Liefde " ("Charity" or This is how the special relationship between Japan and the Netherlands began. Japan Netherlands relationship years, antique maps, atlas, globes, sea charts of cannons, medical science and natural science, especially natural history.

At this time, the Netherlands was the only country that provided Japan with western culture. The celebration of the year cultural and economical exchange between Japan and the Netherlands has induced us to compose some web pages and offerings of a number of beautiful, rare and important items with an accent on this unique relationship between both countries.

We have made informative articles regarding the following subjects: InTokugawa Yoshimune eased restrictions on imports of western books except those related to Christianity.

Dutch-Japanese relations | Japan | az-links.info

This easing of restrictions greatly assisted studies prevailing in Japan of medical science, astronomy and the solar calendar. With the increased import of many different books, prints, paintings of lower quality and glass pictures, some painters and members of wealthy class in Japan came to accept the western artistic rationale with regard to composition and expression which stressed texture and three-dimensional effect.

Japanese artists learned western techniques on their own mainly from illustrations or prints in Dutch books. Shiba Kokana western-style painter representing the Edo period created the first Japanese etchings based on illustrations in a Dutch everyday encyclopedia, the Dictiotiare Oncyclopedia edited by Noel Chomel Kokan obtained from the Amsterdam copper printer Jan Luiken prints from his populair work "Spiegel van Het Menselyk Bedryf" and he produced the first real oil paintings in Japan based on this work.

He named these oil paintings "Ranga" Dutch paintings. The optical mirror or Zograscope and the optical prints imported from the Netherlands stimulated Japanese painters who applied Western vision to the expression of landscapes. This Western vision also provided inspiration for the woodblock prints of landscapes by Hokusai and Hiroshige.

dutch japanese relationship with nature

Dutch art played a very important role in cultivating an understanding Western rationale, while Dutch maps gave the Japanese a new recognition of the world at the end of 19th century, when modern civilization began to be absorbed in earnest. Because of vicious winter storms, it took nearly five months to reach the pacific side. Not surprisingly, these new visitors were not welcomed by the entrenched Portuguese who made every effort to turn the Japanese authorities against the Protestant interlopers.

Despite these efforts, Adams eventually became a well accepted advisor to Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, while some five years later van Quaeckemack was allowed to leave Japan for Southeast Asia with the Shogun's full blessing, and carrying an offer of trading privileges for the Dutch. Inthe Dutch East India Company arrived this time with two ships, commanded by Nicholas Puyck, which had been detached from a 13 ships fleet which had left Amsterdam in December, Puyck's ships, 'Roode Leeuw met Pijlen' and 'Griffioen', carrying a modest cargo of silk, pepper and lead.

They were led directly to Hirado by two Japanese pilots, There, they received official trading privileges and encouragement to set up a factory. Legend has it that when asked what shape the island was to take, the shogun spread out his fan in reply. The island was called Deshima, which literally means 'projecting island'.

The Portuguese were settled as soon as the work was completed in Their residence was, however, of short duration, as in they, along with all other Westerners with the exception of the Dutch, were banned from Japan for good.

Inthe Dutch were in their turn forced to move to Deshima, and remained there together with the Chinese until Japan was opened up in The island was connected to the mainland by a wooden drawbridge Ichi-no-Mon. By this bridge was built a strong guardhouse, which served as the entrance to the island. The second entrance to the island was the Watergate Ni-no-Monwhich was built at one of the short sides of the fanshape.

A fence of wooden planks, covered over and topped with a double row of sharp stakes completely enclosed the island. In the initial stages, life of the Dutch on Deshima was far from pleasant.

They were under constant supervision of Japanese district wardens and official spies. With the establishment of a permanent post for a surgeon at the Dutch trading post Dejima, high-ranking Japanese officials started to ask for treatment in cases when local doctors were of no help. One of the most important surgeons was Caspar Schambergerwho induced a continuing interest in medical books, instruments, pharmaceuticals, treatment methods etc.

During the second half of the 17th century high-ranking officials ordered telescopes, clocks, oil paintings, microscopes, spectacles, maps, globes, birds, dogs, donkeys, and other rarities for their personal entertainment and for scientific studies.

Japan's Quest for Empire 1931 - 1945

The book details a vast array of topics: Between andschools opened throughout the country by the Bakufu as well as terakoya temple schools helped spread the new ideas further. By that time, Dutch emissaries and scientists were allowed much more free access to Japanese society. The German physician Philipp Franz von Sieboldattached to the Dutch delegation, established exchanges with Japanese students.

dutch japanese relationship with nature

He invited Japanese scientists to show them the marvels of Western science, learning, in return, much about the Japanese and their customs. Invon Siebold began a medical school in the outskirts of Nagasaki. While receiving a thorough medical education they helped with the naturalistic studies of von Siebold. Expansion and politicization — [ edit ] The Myriad year clocka Japanese-made perpetual clock-watch wadokeimade by Tanaka Hisashige in National Museum of Nature and ScienceTokyo.

The Rangaku movement became increasingly involved in Japan's political debate over foreign isolation, arguing that the imitating of Western culture would strengthen rather than harm Japan.

HIGHLIGHTS: Japan v. Netherlands - FIFA Women's World Cup 2015

The ruler had just started his campaign against Christianity due to the over-enthusiastic proselytising of Portuguese Jesuits threatening his authority, and the knowledge of the "red haired barbarians", as the Dutch came to be called, would prove useful. The protestant Dutch, whose first objective was trade and not the propagation of the Christian faith, had arrived and established their credibility just in time.

This is how the special relationship between Japan and the Netherlands began. Contacts with Asian countries such as Korea, China and Taiwan naturally went back to much earlier times.

It was a status which actually lasted over two centuries, from toand as the only western country with such privileges, Holland held a very special position. It was the door through which knowledge on science and medicine, and products and armaments from the Netherlands and Europe were imported into Japan through the Dutch settlement on Deshima, the man-made fan-shaped island in the Bay of Nagasaki.

Simultaneously the Dutch generated great wealth exporting Japanese products and knowledge to the west. For both sides, Deshima was more than just a window on a new world. A short time before, inthe Dutch had founded the East Indian Company VOCthe idea behind this being to unite many smaller trading companies into the one powerful organisation which would make it easier to acquire vessels and dominate the trading world. The VOC can be seen as the world's first shareholder company. Besides trading, the Dutch government authorized the VOC to initiate contacts with foreign 'authorities'.

A second trade permit received stated that the Dutch were to be allowed to trade in all Japanese ports and expressed the hope that many Dutch ships would do so.

This document is today in the National Archives in the Hague. They arrived in Hirado and after presentation of an official letter from Maurits, Prince of Orange, the Dutch received official permission to open a trading post. This first trading post was founded by Jacques Specx on the island of Hirado on the north-west coast of Kyushu. Hirado was a convenient location for trade with Taiwan and China, but did not overly impress the Dutch because most wealthy merchants lived in nearby Nagasaki. In the periodthe Dutch could move around the country freely and enjoyed unrestricted contact with the Japanese.

In Hirado they set up a foundry and built a well. However, in the early period trade was not profitable due to the limited contacts with other VOC outposts.

This problem was addressed by piracy of heavily loaded Portuguese trading ships.

Japan–Netherlands relations

The Portuguese understandably complained and the Japanese government responded by banning piracy in Japanese waters. The threats of interference caused the Shogun to gradually apply a stricter policy in contacts with foreigners, both the Southern Barbarians Portuguese and the Red-Haired Barbarians Dutch.

In Tokugawa Ieyasu issued a ban on Christianity and evicted missionaries and prominent Japanese Christians from Japan. This ban was strictly enforced and many Japanese Christians were martyred and had to flee or hide. In Japanese subjects were forbidden to leave the country and board foreign vessels without special passes, and soon afterwards all departures from the country were forbidden.

Such children were not allowed to have contact with the Japanese anymore - a ruling which led to tearful scenes when they had to be parted from their mothers. The Hirado City Museum displays a touching letter of the time written on kimono-silk, the so called Jagatara-bun by Koshioro. After the Japanese government relaxed the rules somewhat and family news 'onshin' was allowed. To limit contacts of the Portuguese with the Japanese, the shogunate decided to build a special island for them.

Its name was Deshimaand Portuguese resided here from towhen they were forced out of the country on suspicion of support to the Christian rebels during the Shimabara revolt. With Deshima vacant, the shogunate found ways to restrict the freedom of movement of the Dutch. In they finally found a good reason to confine the Dutch to Deshima.

Head merchant Francois Caron had two warehouses built of stone to prevent loss by fire - a common threat in those days. The Dutch had to tear the warehouses down and move to Deshima. From then on for more than years Holland would be the only western country permitted to have contact with Japan and the Japanese. This fan shaped island in Nagasaki bay measured but 15, square meters approximatelysquare feetabout the size of Dam Square in Amsterdam. It meant the Dutch became Japan's window on the world.

The most famous teacher is Philip Franz von Siebold, of German origin, who taught many scholars about western science, medicine and other matters of cultural value. In the context of limited contacts between Japanese and foreigners, the Dutch had to live under strict rules. They could not leave without official permission and Deshima was prohibited for women.

An exception was made for the public women of Murayama district, who were allowed to stay one night at a time on the island. Permission to leave the island was only granted for official visits to the governor or the Shogun, the so-called "Edo Sanpu" or court journey to Edo.

So life was not ideal for the Dutch. Most of the time in a person's year was spent idle.

dutch japanese relationship with nature

Only the arrival of ships, mostly in the period August to October, was a busy time. The vessels had to be unloaded, cargoes unpacked, repacked, and traded. The ships had to be reloaded with Japanese goods for the rich merchant traders of the VOC.

It was the time for stories and messages from home. At this time government regulations made business less profitable than it had been at the end of the Hirado period, when free trading was allowed. Goods had to be sold at fixed prices decided upon in advance. Maximum prices for import and export goods were set, and goods which remained unsold had to be taken back.

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But in spite of all these regulations, the VOC still made profits and continued to trade mainly silk for gold, silver, copper and camphor. Also lacquerwork, porcelain and tea were bought and exported to Batavia or Europe.

Contrary to what one might conclude, Deshima was a popular posting among VOC employees. One reason for this was that the Japanese Government, beside the official trade, gave permission for limited personal trading as well, a privilege which provided employees with additional income sometimes reaching levels of more than 20 times their normal annual salary.

The "opperhoofd", whose salary was guilders a year, was recorded as making as much as For political reasons, both in Japan and Europe, profits and trade on Deshima deteriorated in the 18th century. The Japanese authorities set out new regulations on such affairs as the numbers of ships permitted and the exchange rate between silver and gold - initiatives that restricted profits for the trading Dutch. This was the era of the French Revolution and the loss of the once mighty Dutch command of the seas.

Opperhoofd Hendrik Doeff became dependent on the kindness of the Japanese for food and clothing. But Doeff did not waste his time. He continued his writing of a Dutch-Japanese dictionary and invested special efforts in maintaining good relations with the Japanese authorities.

Doeff kept the Dutch flag flying in Deshima: