az-links.info Sample Questions To Conduct An Oral History Interview A Dialogical Relationship. An Approach to Oral History Alessandro Portelli 1. Alessandro Portelli, `A Dialogical Relationship. An Approach to Oral History', Expressions Annual, , pp. Part 2: Before the Interview Ronald J. Grele. FOCUS OR DIGRESSION: The Oral History Interview Meaning in Oral History and “A Dialogical Relationship – An Approach to Oral History”.
Picador,pp. Women's Oral History', Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 2, 2,pp. Paul Thompson, The Voice of the Past: Oral History, 1st edn.
Oxford University Press,pp. Parallel Universes or Shared Endeavour? Before the Interview Art of Oral History, 2nd edn. Blatz, 'Craftsmanship and Flexibility in Oral History: Myers, and Rebecca Sharpless eds. Rowman Altamira,pp. Toward an Ethnography of Practice New York: Palgrave Macmillan,pp. The Oral History Reader, 1st edn. London and New York: Routledge,pp. A Study in Class and Culture Pittsburgh: The Transformation of Europe New York: Humanities Press,pp.
Kathryn Anderson and Dana C. Jack, 'Learning to Listen: The Oral History Reader, 2nd edn. A Journal of Women Studies, 19, 3,pp.
Trauma and Silences Sean Field, 'Beyond "Healing": Translated by Diana Siclovan. Boehlau Verlag,pp. The Transformation of Europe London: Pluto Press,pp. University of Wisconsin Press,pp. Martin Chautari,pp. Tampere University Press,pp. Histories, Theories, Debates New York: While most history was, and some might argue continues to be, written from elite points of view, an early aim of oral historians was to collect memories that would bring new perspectives to understandings of the past.
In Britain the History Workshop movement, which explicitly championed feminist and labour history, was important in sustaining the development of an oral history that was interested in recording the voices of the less powerful.
That is the majority. Thus from the first issues of Oral History the recorded memories under discussion were collected from a wide variety of individuals and groups not normally found in history journals at the time.
In the mid s there were articles on 'Women's work in the Yorkshire inshore fishing industry'; 9 'The rural publican and his business in East Kent before '; 10 and 'Jazz bands of North East England'. The idea of creating 'history from below' which can be traced to the Annales School meant thinking in part about who was 'hidden from history'. But oral historians were also considering the different ways historical consciousness developed as a result of life history experiences.
So, for example, early issues of Oral History carried articles on families and childhood in which children were portrayed as active actors in history an idea that would take another 30 years to be discovered by mainstream sociology. Oral historians did not, however, just want to chart the lives of non-elites and their disempowerment, but they wanted to record instances of resistance and acquiescence.
They wanted to record successful and unsuccessful attempts to make change by the less powerful in society. And 'history from below' also meant encouraging a wider participation in the production of history. In addition to 'shifting the focus and opening new areas of inquiry Sheila Rowbotham's memorable phrase 13 was taken up by oral historians and has proved to be an important and enduring influence. Although Rowbotham did not use oral history she was a major inspiration for those who did, including Jill Liddington and Jill Norris.
Although associated with labour historyoral historians were much more likely to reach beyond the trade union organiser and into areas that included the unorganised and even as far as conservative and deferent members of the working class.
The diverse contributions that can be found in the journal were also present in the Society's public events. Early conference themes included oral tradition and dialect, the First World War, work, local history, street culture, oral history on radio in partnership with the BBC and in the classroom, the International Brigade and women's history. Community, museum and county record office initiatives were also in evidence.
Through its annual conferences and a seminar series the Society continues explicitly to explore new areas and engage new audiences. In the s and s similar projects were being undertaken across Europe, including in Italy, Australia, Israel and across Latin America as well as North America.
And this was also reflected in contributions in Oral Historywhich at the time included articles from or about Eire, Sweden, Canada and parts of Africa.
And here again the focus was on the lives of those people who were either under-represented or missing from traditional historiography. The 'News from abroad' and 'Current British work' sections remain important parts of the journal reporting on community-based as well as academic research.
Back to the top Oral history and labour history While History Workshop identified itself as 'a journal of socialist historians' and later for socialist and feminist historians, Oral History never did.
Oral History - Articles - Making History
Nonetheless the influences of both socialist and feminist writings are evident in the making of oral history. In the s a number of labour historians were using oral history to uncover the otherwise undocumented lives of working-class people.
In addition, the ideas of other socialist historians who were not undertaking oral history work also proved important. So, for example, the writings of C. From the mid s and into the s an affinity grew up between individuals associated with History Workshop and Oral History Leading members of both movements often shared activities, including working in local projects and activities aimed at enabling working-class people to investigate their histories.
One obvious and significant difference between oral historians and labour historians was that oral historians never exclusively limited their attention to the working class. Oral history and black and ethnic minority history 'People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them' 16 In Spring the Oral History journal in a 'Black history' edition featured articles on West Indian migration by Elizabeth Thomas-HopeWest Indian communities in Brixton by Donald HindsPakistani life histories in Manchester by Pnina Werbnerand an overview of 'Black labour' by Harry Goulbourne.
This includes, as well as a special edition on ethnicity and identity in18 Shaheeda Hosein on marriage and divorce among West Indian women in Trinidad19 Susan Burton on cross-cultural interviewing of Japanese women in Britain, 20 and Jelena Cvorovic on gypsy oral history in Serbia.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender histories In contrast to BME oral history, gay and lesbian lives have been less well represented in the Oral History However, articles have included Gavin Brown's 'Listening to queer maps of the city: Fashionable gay masculinity and the shopping experience, London, —early s'. The project culminated in two books. These tended to be centred on community -based projects. Brighton OursStory, for example, produced Daring Hearts: Lesbian and Gay lives of 50s and 60s Brighton.
Queer is Here included oral history recordings from the Hall Carpenter Archive. Oral history and history: Even those researching topics mainly involving elites that were within living memory were loath to admit to using oral sources. Oral historians responded in a number of ways. Some argued for combining oral testimonies with other historical sources, often testing memories for reliability and validity.
The making of oral history: Sections 1–2
Others argued for the uniqueness of memory and in doing so furthered oral historians' critical understanding of memory and narrative. Many of those engaged in community oral history in the mid s continued to point out the biases inherent in most documentary materials that survived for historians to use.
This meant that regardless of the reliability or otherwise of memory, oral history was often an important means of investigating the majority of lives. In addition, oral history was not just about describing a dead past.
It was about using that past to shape the present. In doing so, oral historians were not only recognising their relationships with the subjects of their studies, but were frequently arguing that oral history should empower people who had been doubly marginalised in history and then in historiography. This was in part a rejection of the 'objectivity' so prized by university-based historians that it would still be a subject of debate for historians more than two decades later.
Thus in the s insights were being drawn from across the disciplinary spectrum. This included history, from which oral historians adopted methods of testing the reliability and consistency of testimonies, as well as combining oral testimonies with other sources.
But it also included: The work of Luisa Passerini still inspires researchers concerned about the relationship of the disciplines of oral history and history.
Her powerful criticism of oral historians' 'tendency to transform the writing of history into a form of populism' continues to be appreciated as a warning. As does her argument for recognition of 'a subjective reality which enables us to write history from a novel dimension undiscovered by traditional historiography'.
Although not all of women's oral history was being conducted by feminists, feminist theory has made an important contribution to the ways in which many oral historians design their studies, work with those they research, and analyse the narrated memories they collect.Louis Gossett, Jr. on the value of oral histories - az-links.info
Most of the challenges raised in women's oral history can be applied more broadly. For example, Susan Armitage's 33 and Sherna Berger Gluck's 34 dilemma as expressed in their question, 'How do we simultaneously understand and document women's subordination and resistance?
And indeed the question can become even more interesting when we consider how race, ethnicity and class might combine with gender. As oral historians of women's history have highlighted, there is a dialectical relationship between people as actors and subjects of their own histories.
Oral History : Graham Smith :
How people talk about this can be thought of as historical consciousness and has provided an important approach in women's oral history, including in the work of Summerfield. This includes exploring the gendering of memory and the past-present dialogic. This in itself has led to a number of significant debates about the nature of collective and individual memory.
Oral historians have argued that in interviewing living witnesses they established a different relationship with the past in contrast to other historians. However, the Popular Memory Group 38 were to raise concerns that insufficient attention was being paid to the unequal relationship between professional historians and other participants in oral history projects.
This led in part to greater consideration being given to intersubjectivity and the power relations between interviewers and interviewees, researchers and researched. And from the United States came 'shared authority'. Although subject to differing interpretations, 'shared authority' has provided the basis for approaches to working with individuals and groups. It also provided a means of exploring the impact of the interview relationship on testimonies.