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Thus, economic circumstances may diminish relationship quality by increasing conflict and reducing intimacy. Understanding how and under what circumstances economic factors affect perceived relationship quality will contribute greatly to an understanding of the sources of stability and stress for young couples. Yet differences between the relationship types have not been tested. This article seeks to add to the literature on relationship quality by examining the role of economic resources for both marital and cohabiting relationships.
We analyze two dimensions of relationship quality: We focus on young couples because their relationships are more likely to endure financial stress, and the quality of those relationships can have important consequences for future relationships.
Finally, we compare cohabitating and married relationships to identify differences in the association between economic factors and reported affection and conflict. Knowing if and when cohabitation differs from marriage will help clarify how cohabitation functions as a family form and will contribute to the body of knowledge on cohabitating relationships.
Economic Factors and Relationship Quality The relationships among financial resources, family formation and dissolution, and relationship quality are a persistent focus of study in family research. According to the Conger Family Stress Model, economic strain lowers overall marital quality through its influence on marital interactions Conger, Elder et al.
Previous research has offered mixed support for this assertion. Some studies demonstrate that financial distress is a salient predictor of positive aspects of relationship quality e.
Conger, Elder et al. Although Conger, Elder et al. There is also some evidence that educational attainment promotes positive interactions within cohabiting couples Brown, Studies of transitions out of cohabiting relationships have offered only one measure of relationship quality, however.
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They do not account for all dimensions of relationship quality. Most research on economic factors and violent conflict has combined married and cohabiting couples in one sample e.
This research has concluded that economic strain is positively related to violence in relationships, although there is disagreement regarding appropriate measures of economic distress. De Maris et al. Other studies have found a relationship between objective and subjective measures of financial strain and violent aggression toward female partners Benson et al.
Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage
The existing literature on economic resources and relationship quality suggests a direct relationship between the two factors. Yet there are gaps to fill.
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First, most of these studies have employed out-of-date samples. Second, many studies of violence and conflict have used measures only of male-on-female violence. Last, much of the theoretical and empirical work on economic factors and positive measures of relationship quality has focused on marriage.
We do not know how economic factors influence affection between partners in cohabitating relationships. Research on violent conflict has been more inclusive of cohabiting couples, but it has not differentiated between married and cohabiting partnerships.
Differences between the institutional and economic features of marriage and cohabitation may have implications for the processes by which economic factors affect relationship quality. Differences Between Married and Cohabiting Couples Cohabiting and married relationships differ in many respects, and those differences have implications for the role of economic factors in relationship quality.
Many cohabitors enter into joint living arrangements out of financial necessity, which may result in more fragile partnerships Sassler, Entry into marriage, however, is related to increases in economic well-being Sweeney, This may provide greater flexibility to engage in a wider range of economic arrangements, but it leaves cohabitors more exposed than married partners to fluctuations in income.
This may be due to demographic differences, couple-level processes, and selection effects. In this article, we focus on the role of economic resources and hardship. We argue that the quality of cohabiting relationships may be more vulnerable to economic factors because of their weaker economic and institutional foundations. Because of those fundamental differences, we examine the relationship between economic factors and relationship quality separately by relationship type and test for differences between them.
Our argument suggests a divergence in the ways married and cohabiting couples experience, respond to, and are affected by financial distress. Alternatively, no differences across relationship type suggest that married and cohabiting relationships vary not in relationship processes but in means. Young Cohabiting and Married Partners Young cohabiting and married couples face unique challenges in building strong relationships.
Young adults are particularly likely to experience poverty.
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Such couples face uncertain economic futures and limited safety nets. Young cohabiting and marital couples also differ in important ways from older couples. Among married couples, age is significantly and negatively associated with risk of divorce Teachman, Although early marriage has decreased in the United States, it is not wholly absent.
Thus, it is important to understand the sources and dynamics of relationship quality for such couples. Dynamics of Relationship Quality Relationship quality is an ambiguous term, potentially encompassing all objective and subjective measures of couple-level well-being. Measures of relationship quality include relationship satisfaction, individual-level happiness and content, frequency of arguing, conflict, violence, and relationship dissolution.
Yet focusing on only one indicator of relationship quality ignores the multidimensional nature of the concept Willetts, In this article, we seek to explore the relationship between economic factors and two dimensions of relationship quality: We expect to find a direct relationship between economics and relationship quality; however, we anticipate that this relationship will differ for cohabiting and married individuals.
We hypothesize that economic circumstances have a greater association with relationship quality for cohabitors than for married individuals.
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Method Sample and Data This study used data from two nationally representative studies: The NLSY97 data set was designed to represent individuals in the United States in born between the years and to document their transition from adolescence to adulthood and from school to work.
The majority of respondents were still in school at the start of data collection. The original sample comprised 8, respondents, including a nationally representative sample of 6, youths and an oversample of 2, Latino and Black youths. Respondents were interviewed yearly from through The NLSY97 has collected data on all cohabitating and marital relationships for respondents from age 16 onward. Several key relationship measures were not asked about in the early years of the study, so we limited our analysis to the years through We included anyone who was cohabiting or married during that period in our sample.
We chose the most recent partnership for which we had data as the relationship of focus. Our sample consisted of 1, cohabiting partners and 1, married partners. Add Health is a nationally representative study of teenagers in the 7th through 12th grade in the United States in This data set used a school-based and multistage cluster sample design.
The study began with an in-school questionnaire and then used school rosters to randomly select students from each school to participate in in-home interviews. Respondents were reinterviewed six years later for the Wave 3 in-home interviews, which took place from August to April From that wave, respondents who were then dating, cohabiting, or married were randomly drawn and asked to recruit their partners for participation in the study.
Only partners who were opposite-sex partners, older than 18 years of age, and in a relationship with the respondent for at least 3 months were eligible.
However, even though the odds are not very good, healthy, and long-lasting relationships are definitely possible and proven by many people. What secrets do they possess? The answer is that they all work hard at their relationship. They made a decision of choosing to love their mate rather than relying on the "warm and fuzzy" feelings, which everyone knows will fade. By making love a choice you are making a decision that even in the bad times, you stick it out.
Think of it like choosing a car. You pick out the make, model, year, color, and features that you believe are best for you. After driving your car for a couple of months, you realize that perhaps you should have purchased a larger car, or that maybe the leather seats would have been better, or on hot sunny days, the sunroof would have been nice. However, it is now too late so you choose to keep your car and make it work. It is the same for marriage. Not everything will be perfect and there will be major obstacles to overcome but you have made your decision and now you choose to make it work.
There are hundreds of things you can do to better your relationship.