What is the relationship between texture and consistency

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

The size of sand particles range between and mm; silt, mm and Soils with the finest texture are called clay soils, while soils with the coarsest. LAB CONNECTION: Sedimentation Test of Soil Texture. A simple Soils with a larger percentage of sand are easier to work than soils with a larger percentage. Soil texture and structure greatly influence water infiltration, Soil porosity refers to the space between soil particles, which consists of various.

Estimated water use efficiency for irrigated and dry-land crop production systems is 50 percent, and available soil water has a large impact on management decisions producers make throughout the year.

Soil Management

Soil moisture available for plant growth makes up approximately 0. By understanding a little about the soil's physical properties and its relationship to soil moisture, you can make better soil-management decisions. Soil texture and structure greatly influence water infiltration, permeability, and water-holding capacity.

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

Soil texture refers to the composition of the soil in terms of the proportion of small, medium, and large particles clay, silt, and sand, respectively in a specific soil mass. For example, a coarse soil is a sand or loamy sand, a medium soil is a loam, silt loam, or silt, and a fine soil is a sandy clay, silty clay, or clay.

Soil structure refers to the arrangement of soil particles sand, silt, and clay into stable units called aggregates, which give soil its structure.

Aggregates can be loose and friable, or they can form distinct, uniform patterns. For example, granular structure is loose and friable, blocky structure is six-sided and can have angled or rounded sides, and platelike structure is layered and may indicate compaction problems.

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

Soil porosity refers to the space between soil particles, which consists of various amounts of water and air. Porosity depends on both soil texture and structure.

Introduction to Soil Texture

For example, a fine soil has smaller but more numerous pores than a coarse soil. A coarse soil has bigger particles than a fine soil, but it has less porosity, or overall pore space. Water can be held tighter in small pores than in large ones, so fine soils can hold more water than coarse soils.

Water infiltration is the movement of water from the soil surface into the soil profile. Soil texture, soil structure, and slope have the largest impact on infiltration rate.

Water moves by gravity into the open pore spaces in the soil, and the size of the soil particles and their spacing determines how much water can flow in. Wide pore spacing at the soil surface increases the rate of water infiltration, so coarse soils have a higher infiltration rate than fine soils.

Soil Texture and Soil Structure

Permeability refers to the movement of air and water through the soil, which is important because it affects the supply of root-zone air, moisture, and nutrients available for plant uptake. A soil's permeability is determined by the relative rate of moisture and air movement through the most restrictive layer within the upper 40 inches of the effective root zone.

Water and air rapidly permeate coarse soils with granular subsoils, which tend to be loose when moist and don't restrict water or air movement.

Slow permeability is characteristic of a moderately fine subsoil with angular to subangular blocky structure. This cube represents a sand particle.

Soil Lab - Brooke's Lab Reports - AP Environmental Science

Now, imagine that you break this single cube up into smaller cubes, which represent clay particles. These cubes each have 6 sides.

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

Essentially, by breaking up the larger cube, you have exposed many more surfaces. Thus, the total surface area of the smaller cubes will be much greater than the surface area of the single cube. To explore this concept further, view a brief animation by clicking the following link to North Carolina State University: There are different types of layered silicates, such as kaolinite, halloysite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite. The various types of layered silicates differ greatly, as we will discuss later.

Like silicate clays, these minerals have a very high surface area. As a result, soils with amorphous minerals hold large amounts of water and stored nutrients, depending on the degree of weathering. Aluminum and iron oxides are typically found in the highly-weathered soils of the tropics. As clay minerals are intensely weathered, the structure of silicates clays change.

Particularly, the silicate clays lose silica. What remains in the soil are aluminum and iron oxides. Gibbsite is an example of an aluminum oxide, which has a grayish, whitish hue.

Goethite is an example of an iron oxide, which imparts a reddish color to the soil. Properties of oxides Oxides are fairly stable and resistant to further weathering. Oxides can act like a glue and hold other soil particles together.

Oxides can tie up nutrients, such as phosphorus. Oxides have a high anion exchange capacity AEC. Humus is the portion of organic matter that is mostly resistant to decomposition and remains in the soil.

Humus is composed of small particles, with tremendous surface area.

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

These particles have a very great capacity to retain and supply nutrients, as well as hold water. Soil Structure Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into groupings.

These groupings are called peds or aggregates, which often form distinctive shapes typically found within certain soil horizons.

what is the relationship between texture and consistency

For example, granular soil particles are characteristic of the surface horizon.