Xenia (Greek) - Wikipedia
He exhorts his fellow suitors to give heed to Telemachus' words, but adds a threat physical abuse () will be flaunted by Ctesippus' taunting and pelting of. The Odyssean Suitors and the Host-Guest Relationship. HARRY L. LEVY of violence at the very threshold of that quietude: Odysseus' slaughter of the suitors .. tale in which the generous host is beset by guests who abuse his hospitality to . Describe the relationship between Telemachus and Penelope in this chapter. Who seems to He verbally abuses Odysseus and calls him lazy and greedy. He also kicks To tell him to make his rounds with the suitors, begging to each.
Drawing by Bonaventura Genelli, It's a wise child that knows its own father. The time of his birth Telemachus was born short before the outbreak of the Trojan War ; for he was still a babe when King Agamemnon 's agent Palamedes came to Ithaca and destroyed his parent's home by forcing Odysseus to comply with The Oath of Tyndareusand join the alliance that sailed against Troy in order to demand, by force or by persuasion, the restoration of Helen and the Spartan property that the seducer Paris had stolen.
Odysseus joins the allies Odysseuswho did not wish to become the victim of the oath he himself had devised, feigned madness in an attempt to stay at home.
But clever Palamedes rightly felt that he was pretending, and threatening to kill little Telemachus, forced Odysseus to give up his pretence, and join the allies.
For this reason and from that time, Odysseus was hostile to Palamedesand when later they were fighting at TroyOdysseus plotted against him, and had him stoned to death by the army as a traitor. Nevertheless, Odysseus had to fight at Troy for ten years, and when the war was over he was not able to find his way home, but instead wandered for another ten years, coming to places both known and unknown.
As time passed, and neither Odysseus nor his army returned to Ithaca and Cephallenia, many started to believe that he was dead. In addition, these youths did not conduct their suit from their own homes, but instead imposed themselves in the palace, consuming Odysseus ' estate for their own sustenance. They argued that Penelope forced them to act as they did for having fooled them by means of The Shroud of Laertes, saying that she would marry once she had finished her work.
However, after three years of wait, they discovered that she unravelled by night what she wove by day. So, in order to avoid further cheating, the SUITORS decided to stay at her home, and undermine the palace's finances as a way of persuading her to choose one of them as husband more sooner than later.
This is why Telemachus, who was now about twenty years old, had reasons to fear his own ruin; for the SUITORSas he put it, were eating him out of house and home. The wrath and sympathy of the gods But whatever happens on earth has been rehearsed in heaven. And since it takes a god to defeat a god or to curb his will, Athenawhose heart was wrung because of Odysseus ' sufferings, took his defence in the assembly of the gods, and descended to earth to embolden young Telemachus.
For no one ever reaches maturity whose spirit has not been instilled by a god or a goddess. And since the distance between thought and deed is short for a deity, Athenahaving bound under her feet her golden sandals, was carried by them in an instant to Odysseus ' palace. The Taphian stranger gives advice There, having assumed the appearance of a chieftain from the island of Taphos, which is off the coast of Acarnania, the western coast of mainland Greece, she met Telemachus and suggested him to call the Ithacan lords to assembly, and there exhort the SUITORS to be off.
Athena also advised him to sail to Pylos and Spartaand find out, by meeting Nestor and Menelauswhether he could learn about his father, or by chance pick up a truthful rumour from heaven. She also made clear for him his choices, saying that if Odysseus were alive and on his way back, he could reconcile himself with the SUITORS ' wastage still for some time. But, the goddess said, if Odysseus were dead he should build him a funeral mound, and give his mother to a new husband.
These were the instructions that Athenain the guise of a Taphian leader supposedly visiting Ithaca, gave to Telemachus, filling him with daring. One could ask, as Odysseus himself did, why the goddess in her wisdom did not tell Telemachus that his father was alive, instead of arranging a trip to the two Peloponnesian cities. But, as Athena has explained, the adventure was thought to redound to the young man's credit.
For the gods will not do what has to be done by men. Yet they appreciate those who are civilized, intelligent, and self-possessed, and these they never desert. A new heart Telemachus perceived such a change in his own state of mind that he realised that a divinity had been with him; for insight or courage do not appear in the mind by themselves, but instead are planted there by the gods. So with this new heart Telemachus summoned the Ithacan assembly, and there gave the SUITORS formal notice to quit his palace, exhorting them to feast elsewhere, or in each other's homes.
He also exposed the details of their main outrages: However, the assembly was reluctant to condemn the SUITORSthe reason being that they were the sons of many a nobleman of the island realm present in the gathering. And since wrong deeds usually look less wrong when perpetrated by sons, cousins, uncles or other lovely relatives, the majority of the assembly found it seemly to keep silent and abstain from disapproving their darling children. It was at this meeting that Telemachus declared that he intended to sail to Pylos and Sparta in order to inquire after Odysseus ' whereabouts, saying that if he learned that his father was on his way back he might reconcile himself to one more year of wastage; but that if he ascertained that Odysseus was dead he would build him funeral mound, and give his mother to a new husband.
For Telemachus saw these young men who pestered his mother with unwanted attentions and wasted his wealth as a disease and an outrage to decency.
Telemacheia: Story of the development of an adolescent becoming a basileus
And it was her, they argued, who had forced them to act as they did. For she had fooled them during three years with The Shroud of Laertes, saying that she would marry once she had finished this piece of work. But she, deceiving everybody, unravelled by night what she wove by day, and so, they reasoned, in order to avoid to be fooled again, they would have to stay and undermine the palace's finances until she decided to abandon her reluctant attitude.
These were the means by which the SUITORS expected to force Penelope to make a choice, and by letting Telemachus suffer and see his wealth consumed, they hoped that he would persuade his mother to marry one of them. But not always those who act unjustly are aware of the consequences that come with their deeds, in particular when they are guided by the enthusiasm and the ambition of youth.
For there are many who risk their own skins in situations which they deem to be quite innocent, but that unexpectedly become their ruin. For later, when Odysseus returned, and unleashing his wrath provoked a blood bath not leaving one single suitor alive, they protested and even revolted, but now, while their darling children abused Odysseus ' household, they sat in abject silence, not daring to condemn the outrage. And since nobody among those who counted for the SUITORS, condemned or admonished them, they dared to push their luck even further, declaring that if Odysseus would suddenly appear he would meet an ugly end, which means that from thoughtless SUITORS they were turning into rebels and instigators of rebellion.
This is how things which are relatively small, looking as if they were childish pranks, fall, step by step, out of proportion. But then it has been said of Discord that she has in the beginning an insignificant appearance, reaching soon heaven with her head while having her feet still on the ground. For one thing is to be the suitor of a widow, another to be an unwanted suitor, and yet another to think about making the woman a widow in case her husband proved to be alive after all.
And once the SUITORS started thinking this last thought, it was not difficult for them to go even further and plot, although in vain, against the life of Telemachusfearing that he would return from his trip to Pylos and Sparta with for them unwelcome news about his father.
For being persuaded that Odysseus was dead, they did not pay court to the widow in the regular way, but instead sat in his palace eating up his livelihood by consuming large amounts of meat and wine. However, some among them did not feel ready to carry on this murderous plan, and they adjourned their decision in this matter. And while the servant took a place near TelemachusOdysseuslimping along with the aid of a staff and looking like a distressful beggar, went round collecting scraps from the SUITORS.
They say that it was the goddess Athena who inspired him to go round the table, so that he would learn to distinguish the good from the bad among the SUITORS. And yet, they say, this did not mean that any of them would be saved from destruction and death. For it was a delusion to think, he explained, that father and brothers would stand by them, and he added: For not without bloodshed, will the wooers and he part one from the other once he is under his own roof.
The SUITORS' gifts In the midst of their outrages, the SUITORS had also time and opportunity for gallant words, and they could call Penelopewho could be the mother of many of them, for wise, beautiful, and graceful, which nevertheless sounded false, coming from those, who inviting themselves, enjoyed free meals at her estate's expense.
But they also gave her gifts, for after all they hoped to win her hand, and with her all of King Odysseus ' rights. This was also a pleasure for the SUITORS, for it is delightful for those who enjoy power and wealth, to have the opportunity to exhibit both one and the other, showing that not only insolence, but also grace, glory, and generosity may emanate from their presence.
And when that is done, then insolence and arrogance may be resumed with a clearer conscience, for in fact even Odysseus ' baldness raised laughter among these merry fellows, and that is why they often had to be exhorted by Telemachus to refrain from provocation and violence. The trial of the bow The day came when Penelopedeeming that she could not allow the SUITORS to consume all the wealth, decided to confront them with Odysseus ' bow, proposing a trial of strength, and declaring that she was prepared to marry whichever among them proved the best at stringing the bow and shooting an arrow.
Liodes, who was the first to try the bow, said as he failed to bend it: For this day, being the holiday of the archer god Apollowas no time, he argued, to bend bows. And when he returned, he begged a favor of them all: The SUITORS found this request preposterous, not because they feared that Penelope would marry the beggar if he bent the bow, but because if he did, the people would say that they could not bend it, but in came some casual tramp and bent the bow with great ease.
And this kind of black spot in their immaculate reputation they could not suffer. However, as Penelope and Telemachus intervened in his favor, the bow was finally handed over to Odysseuswho strung the bow without effort, and shooting an arrow hit all the marks.
Death is unbelievable As he finished the test, Odysseus nodded, and Telemachus took place full armed at his father's side. For if this was no accident, then there was but little hope and they were in great danger, for there was not a shield or a spear in the room to lay their hands on.
But those about to be slaughtered seldom believe that slaughter awaits them, and that is why the SUITORS thought that they could still reproach Odysseus for what they deemed to be a blunder, and threatened him with heavy consequences for having slain the greatest nobleman in Ithaca.
So to wake them up Odysseus said: So you ate me out of house and home; you raped my maids; you wooed my wife on the sly though I was alive, with no more fear of the gods in heaven than of the human vengeance that might come.
I tell you, one and all, your doom is sealed. Self-taught am I, and the god has planted in my heart all manner of lays, and worthy am I to sing to you as to a god; wherefore be not eager to cut my throat. Bonaventura Genelli — This is the kind of thing that no young man wishes to hear, for sudden death takes away far more than the colour from the cheeks. However, for reasons that only those who retaliate fully know, Odysseus refused any agreement, and exhorted them to fight or run for their lives.
This is how the SUITORS' season of insolence and pleasure came to an abrupt end, and they would have wished that some familiar voice had woken them up from this nightmare so that they could have dinner again. But after the extraordinary victory over more than one hundred men, Odysseus did not wish to have any jubilation, for he found it an impious thing to exult over the slain who were victims of their own infamy.