Petroleum - Oil and Natural Gas | energy4me
Oil and natural gas together make petroleum. and transportation are found in small spaces — called pores — between layers of rock deep within the Earth. Natural gas is sometimes just called gas. Natural gas is found underground with petroleum. Natural gas is flammable (burns with a flame). The fuel used in cars. Natural gas consists mostly of methane and hydrocarbons or ethane. LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas is from crude oil and mainly used for.
Oil, or more specifically petroleum, comprises a diverse collection of much more complex hydrocarbons.
Several different types of molecules — from alkanes and cycloalkanes to aromatic hydrocarbons and asphaltenes — combine long chains, rings or planes of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms.
With every deposit of crude oil having its own mix of chemicals, the fossil fuel requires extensive refining for many uses in modern technology. This term can be taken quite literally.What is Natural Gas?
Some ancient plants and animals survived for modern scientists to dig up in the form of preserved bones, imprints in rock or even entire petrified plants.
Others, however, found themselves buried under many tons of sand and rock, creating intense heat and pressure. In many cases, this pressure eventually caused more solid decaying plant matter to harden into coal. But for smaller organisms like zooplankton and algae, this pressure eventually caused the complex organic matter to break down into more basic structures. The demand for crude oil and natural gas is very high.
These fossil fuels are very useful so it is very important to conserve oil so that there will still be some left for the next generations to come. It is better to use natural gas than crude oil because it is safer for our environment.
Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?
Crude oil and natural gas are fossil fuels that are used for heating. Crude oil or petroleum consists of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds while natural gas consists mostly of methane and hydrocarbons or ethane. Crude oil and natural gas are used for vehicles, but the demand for crude oil is greater than for natural gas because it is cheaper.
Crude oil is also used to make cosmetics for women, plastics, rubber and the like while natural gas is used as fertilizers. This method is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.
However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants. Consequently, it may be more economical to burn the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline.
Water vapor is often removed, even if the gas is burned on site. If low temperatures condense water out of the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapor.
What is Petroleum and Natural Gas?
Other non-methane components may also be removed to meet emission standardsto prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations. Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Experimental systems were being proposed[ when? Gas generated in sewage treatment plants is commonly used to generate electricity.
The city of Bakersfield, Californiauses cogeneration at its sewer plants. The total biopower generation from the 74 plants is about 66 MW. Hydrates require a combination of high pressure and low temperature to form.
Inthe cost of extracting natural gas from crystallized natural gas was estimated to be as much as twice the cost of extracting natural gas from conventional sources, and even higher from offshore deposits.
Natural gas processing The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant.
It shows the various unit processes used to convert raw natural gas into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets. Gas depletion As ofnatural gas production in the US has peaked twice, with current levels exceeding both previous peaks. After a brief drop, withdrawls have been increasing nearly every year sincewith production at Because of its low density, it is not easy to store natural gas or to transport it by vehicle. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans, since the gas needs to be cooled down and compressed, as the friction in the pipeline causes the gas to heat up.
Difference Between Crude Oil and Natural Gas | Difference Between | Crude Oil vs Natural Gas
Many existing pipelines in America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing northern states to speak of potential shortages.
The large trade cost implies that natural gas markets are globally much less integrated, causing significant price differences across countries. In Western Europethe gas pipeline network is already dense. See also List of natural gas pipelines.