Earthquakes and Volcanoes - KidSenz - News for kids
Volcanoes and Earthquakes by Basil Booth. On April 18, , a disastrous earthquake struck San Francisco. Lasting less than a minute, it destroyed most of the. Volcanoes and earthquakes. There are two main types of tectonic plate: Oceanic plates occur under the oceans. Continental plates form the land. Oceanic plates. Earthquakes are the shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earth's surface. They are the Earth's way of releasing stress or energy. More than a million.
Where and when these plates meet dictates the location and occurrence of volcanoes and earthquakes, respectively. Plate Boundaries There are three types of plate boundary; convergent, divergent and transform. According to the Classroom of the Future website, convergent boundaries occur when two tectonic plates meet each other directly and crush or crunch together.
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Divergent boundaries are formed when two plates move apart. Transform boundaries occur when two plates slide past each other, such as along the San Andreas Fault in California. Volcanoes Volcanoes only occur at convergent and divergent plate boundaries. At convergent boundaries, one plate is forced below the other, forming a ridge along which mountains and volcanoes develop.
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Huge forces are exerted as the plates meet. This causes cracks to occur in the crust, which are filled by magma escaping from the mantle, ultimately producing a volcano, as described by BBC Bitesize. In contrast, the plates moving in opposite directions at divergent boundaries cause the crust to break apart, leaving a gap.
This gap is filled by magma, forming new crust at the boundary, according to Classroom of the Future. Volcanoes are formed where this magma reaches the surface.
When pressure within volcanoes builds up to a certain level, they erupt, spewing molten magma and debris over the surrounding areas. Earthquakes are not a geological structure like volcanoes and they do not release magma.
At other times they actually collide with one another. Plate movement causes the buildup of tremendous quantities of energy in the rock.
When the energy is released, it produces vibrations that travel through the rock, leading to earthquakes. During earthquakes, faultsor giant cracks, are produced by the pressure of the moving rock. Earthquakes and volcanoes occur along the edges of the plates. Scientists have developed a theory that explains how these giant plates move, thereby creating, destroying, and re-forming continents and oceans over long periods of time.
This theory is called the theory of plate tectonics.
According to the theory, there are two types of plates, oceanic and continental. Various types of movement occur along the different kinds of plate boundaries.
Plate collisions create landforms such as coastal volcanoes, island arcs, and mountain chains. When plates move apart, they produce new ocean floor as magma from the mantle rises up through volcanoes and deposits new rock along the plate boundaries.
In some areas plates slide alongside each other, neither creating nor destroying land. When the plates move, they cause vibrations that produce earthquakes. Thousands of earthquakes take place every year, but only a few of them are destructive enough to be considered disasters.