what is the difference between history and geography ? | Yahoo Answers
Moreover, she points out that there are links between history and geography through They highlight that geography allows children to study people and develop a . concept of change within a cross-curricular geography and history lesson. of history and geography at the center of the social studies curriculum of elementary The authors point out that, "history has a spatial dimension--the places USE THE FIVE GEOGRAPHIC THEMES IN LESSONS ON AMERICAN HISTORY. The relationship between Ukrainian history and geography throughout history has been a consistent border. Ukraine has been ruled by.
The Alabama and Mississippi curriculum frameworks, like the California and Florida documents, stress the utility and logic of teaching and learning geography through courses in American history and world history. He effectively demonstrates the use of geographical ideas in the study of history in his remarkable work of scholarship: In the preface to this three-volume project, Meinig stresses that, "geography is not just a physical stage for the historical drama, not just a set of facts about areas of the earth.
It is a special way of looking at the world. Geography, like history, is an age-old and essential strategy for thinking about large and complex matters"xv.
Teachers should examine Meinig's work to develop a geographic perspective on major events and themes in history. Key concepts of geography, such as location, place, and region, are tied inseparably to major ideas of history, such as time, period, and events. Geography and history in tandem enable learners to understand how events and places have affected each other across time, how people have influenced and have been influenced by their environments in different periods of the past.
Geographic learning is, therefore, essential to sound teaching and learning of history in general and American history in particular. The authors point out that, "history has a spatial dimension--the places where human actions occur. For example, aspects of the natural environment, such as climate and terrain, influence human behavior; and people affect the places they inhabit. Therefore, main ideas of geography, such as the location of places and relationships within places should be included as important parts of the study of history" The National Council for Geographic Education, the Association of American Geographers, and the National Geographic Society have endorsed these five themes as foundations for geography education in schools.
Increasingly, they are being adopted by developers of curriculum guides for state-level departments of education and local school districts.
How can these five geographic themes be used to illuminate and enhance important topics in standard American history courses? Each of the five major themes of geography education is stated and described below in connection with key questions about a major event in world history: People and places are positioned variously on the Earth's surface. Where in the world are places located? What are the locations of places in Europe and the Caribbean region that were linked by the Columbian voyages?
How did the relative location of these places affect the events of the Columbian voyages? Physical and human characteristics distinguish one place from other places. What makes a place special? How have the distinguishing characteristics of a place, such as Cuba, Santo Domingo, or Spain, changed because of cataclysmic events of the Columbian voyages? The interactions of humans with their environments shape the characteristics of both people and the environment.
How do people change the natural environment and how does the environment influence the activities of people?
How did human-environment interactions affect the physical and human characteristics of the Western hemisphere region during and after the Columbian voyages? Human interactions on the Earth--people, products, and information--affect the characteristics of places.
What are the global patterns of movement of people, products, microbes, domestic animals, seeds, and information that developed as a consequence of the Columbian voyages? The earth can be divided into regions to help us understand similarities and differences of people and places.
How did the Caribbean region form and change during and after the Columbian voyages? The geographic themes discussed above are indispensable aids to understanding major events in U.
For example, the themes of location and place can be fruitfully applied to analysis of President Jefferson's decision to purchase Louisiana and President Theodore Roosevelt's desire to build a canal across the isthmus of Panama.
Teachers of American history can use the ideas of relationships within places human-environment interactions and region to enhance their students' learning about problems of the "Dust Bowl" of the Great Plains in the s and New Deal programs designed to resolve such problems. Further, the geographic themes of region, movement, and place can yield insights for students about the "great migration" of Black Americans from the rural South to the urban North during the first half of the twentieth century.
These minute programs, designed for use in secondary school history courses, include the following topics: The Case of Savannah, The Chinese-American Experience, Information about these ten programs, can be obtained from the Agency for Instructional Technology, Box A, Bloomington, Indiana ; telephone: The National Geographic Society has produced a multi-media set of instructional materials that connects major themes of geography to the study of American history.
Name three rivers that pioneers followed on the Oregon Trail. In what ways did the Native Americans, landforms, and climates that pioneers encountered in each portion of their journey ease the passage or make the trip difficult? How did the pioneers change the landscapes over which they passed? Were all of these environmental modifications negative or were some positive? How did rivers, deserts, and mountain ranges influence their travel route?
How are the Great Plains different from Oregon's Willamette Valley, the final destination of many of the pioneers? Planning and implementing the activity Although maps can be valuable sources of information in this activity, do not hesitate to encourage students to use textbooks, other reference books, and magazines. Using primary sources e. Refer to the list of organizations at the end of this article for sources of appropriate materials.
Exercises and activities should be based on what I call the "detective methodology. For example, provide students with a map of the Oregon Trail Figure 1an atlas of the United States that displays landform regions and climate, and a short narrative story of the Oregon Trail.
With this information in hand, students should be able to answer several of the guiding questions. Provide additional information by having students perform a dramatic reading of several diary accounts or letters. If available, show students historical maps or atlases that were sold to travelers and have them compare the maps with contemporary maps for accuracy. Finally, allow students to view one of the excellent videos available on the Oregon Trail, and have them pay close attention to the persistent influence of geography.
In groups of four or five, students should discuss and complete their answers to the guiding questions.
Integrating History and Geography
For example, they should be able to relate that much of the Oregon Trail human-made followed rivers natural. After naming and locating several of the rivers, students should be able to discuss how humans interacted with rivers by drinking water, watering their stock, irrigating plants, bathing, washing clothing, fishing, and boating and moved along them following trails, finding paths of least slope, and searching for sources that might provide a pass through a mountain range.
Students should be able to discover why settlers moving west followed rivers. Using three-dimensional maps and topographic sheets, students will learn that rivers afforded the flattest terrain in any given area and provided a route having the least rise in elevation. As students learn about the size and weight of the wagons used on the Oregon Trail, they will discover why pioneers often looked for river routes, especially those with fairly wide floodplains.
Students should learn that although rivers provided water for drinking, cooking, and washing, they proved difficult to cross and pioneers began to pollute them as they trekked over the Oregon Trail. In the regions through which they passed, pioneers cut down trees to clear land for farming and to establish lumbering industries.
Clearing fields accelerated runoff and erosion, even on relatively gentle slopes. Lumbering on steep slopes produced spectacular and ruinous cases of erosion. Students should also realize that the Rocky Mountains separate three distinct regions: In addition, the mountains serve as barriers to the prevailing westerly winds that drop their precipitation on the westward-facing slopes and create leeward zones of desert environments.
Sources of Information for Integrating Geography Martorella recognized the need for developing integration strategies that would increase awareness within the social studies curriculum. He noted the importance of reinterpreting historical societies and events within an expanding regional, and later global, interdependence.
Integrating History and Geography
Social studies teachers, then, must use spatial perspectives in all history lessons; without them, the events of history lack ties to real places on earth.
Traditional geographic integration in the social studies, as displayed in textbooks, relied heavily on using maps to find and identify locations. Although this is certainly an important basic skill that should be part of every history unit plan, it should be viewed as a means toward the intrinsic geographical knowledge necessary to impart a spatial dimension to history and not simply as a skill.
With some exceptions, few published integrated history and geography lesson plans are available. Strengthening Geography in the Social Studies Natoli includes brief articles highlighting strategies and resources for blending geographic concepts and skills into social studies lessons. If you live in an area served by a local Geographic Alliance organization, check to see if it publishes locally created geography lesson plans in its newsletter.
Many local chapters of the Geographic Alliance are based at geography departments in nearby universities. These university departments can also supply valuable advice and resources. The following national organizations can provide additional information and addresses of local and state contacts: NCGE produces the Journal of Geography and many other publications, sponsors an annual meeting, and distributes geography education materials published by the Geographic Education National Implementation Project, a coalition of geographical organizations based at the Association of American Geographers, 16th St.
National Geographic Society P. Box Washington, DC In an effort to boost geography awareness and education, National Geographic has instituted the Geography Education Program offering teacher training and assistance through workshops and model classroom experimentation.
Curriculum guidelines and suggestions and a quarterly newsletter keep teachers informed of classroom strategies and techniques. Methods of Instruction in Social Studies Education.
University Press of America, From Thought to Action, edited by K. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, California State Department of Education.
California History-Social Science Framework.