The relationship between the NGO and the government in Malaysia constitutes of dubiousness and challenges in the public policy discourse. This article. In Malaysia, the government and in particular, the Ministry of Education and Down Syndrome Association (DSA) across the globe is working relentlessly to. He wrote a book that triggered the creation of an international NGO. They went on to form the Association for Progressive Communications (APC), which . The real aim of governments -- such as Malaysia, Singapore.
The NGOs have employed 1 health personnel, established 44 health centres and manage and support 83 health facilities across the State. The problem that faces the government in future is how health facilities will be run should a peaceful settlement be reached and NGOs leave the region. Government, NGOs, Collaboration, Curative health, North Darfur State, Sudan Introduction North Darfur State is located in western Sudan and is divided into 15 districts and inhabited by 2 people, according to information gathered from the census of 1.
North Darfur State is considered to be one of the weakest states in Sudan due to its lack of human, financial and natural resources.
Since when conflict between the government and rebels groups started in the State, a shortage of both government and private sector health facilities has come about to serve the people who have been affected by conflict. The number of people thus affected is estimated to be about 1. These people are living in camps in the vicinity of large towns such as El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur State.
They live in poor conditions, suffer ing outbreaks of disease, with malaria and diarrhea a constant threat 3.
The federal and state governments are responsible for providing basic health services. The State Ministry of Health runs an extensive network of hospitals, rural hospitals, clinics and dispensaries, but the services suffer from shortages of human and financial resources and equipment to deliver curative health services. Furthermore, people face difficulties in accessing health services, especially in rural and conflict-affected areas.
The State Ministry of Health needs assistance from NGOs and other stakeholders to become involved in financing and delivering curative health services. This situation has led international Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs to intervene and take responsibility for providing most of the curative health services in North Darfur State 4.
These organisations concentrate their efforts on urban areas because of their lack of capacity.
The Role of NGOs in Global Governance
The range of activities carried out by NGOs extends from providing hospitals, clinics and primary health care centers, to providing free consultation and drugs. NGOs contribute to curative health service delivery by providing human and financial resources, materials and equipment, sharing information, developing joint projects with government, and developing national health policy, as well as creating joint committees with government.
In addition, the revolution in global telecommunications has connected the most remote areas to the global media and, with it, to global politics. The change in the speed of communication has been dramatic.
Just as important, but rarely acknowledged, is that email, the Web and applications such as Facebook and Twitter are extremely inexpensive to operate.Malaysian NGO CEDAW Alternative Report Launch (5 of 7)
Global communications can for the first time be used by the poor as well as the rich, as evidenced by the global campaign waged over the Internet by the peasants of Narmada to halt World Bank funding of a hydroelectric project that would have flooded their lands. It is obvious that the Internet has been of great advantage to NGOs.
They can communicate more efficiently, more cheaply and more quickly to their members, their supporters and the wider world. In dealing with the general public, they no longer have to rely on the news media, but have their own unfiltered, uncensored communication channels.
This immensely enhances their ability to mobilize. Of course, the effect should not be exaggerated. There would have been no Arab Spring without the existence of a young generation of disaffected, educated, unemployed individuals, who were willing to risk their lives by responding to the calls made on the Internet for them to demonstrate.
Charter, when NGOs strengthened wording covering the U. Initially, it was expected that this would only be taken up by a small number of global commercial organizations and trade union federations. However, there were soon many more groups, and a broader diversity of them, than had been expected. Today, about 3, NGOs are recognized by the U. They receive all U. They hold their own meetings as "side events" to the official proceedings, and they can often make their own oral presentations at the start or the end of the diplomatic meetings.
At times, they even table their own agenda items and open the debate.
Overall, NGOs exercise far greater rights at the U. However, NGOs have no formal rights in the policymaking bodies where governments are most sensitive about their prerogatives, such as in the U.
Even so, there are flexible informal procedures that give them access both to the staff of the international organizations and to government delegates. NGOs have the greatest influence on environmental policy, women's issues, development and human rights. In these issue areas, they use the media and lobbying of individual governments to set the U. NGOs taking on a monitoring role. NGOs have learned that gaining support for their issue areas through U.
Even when government support is genuine, lack of resources, opposition back home, agenda overload and lack of expertise may result in governments failing to implement their commitments. Some governments may have joined the consensus merely to avoid the embarrassment of isolation. In these situations, NGOs switch from being lobbyists on policymaking to being monitors.
Here their political position is unassailable, because NGOs are simply demanding that governments implement the policies that they have already officially endorsed. NGOs with high status and high expertise can assist the secretariats in the production of these reports, produce parallel reports or generate media attention and coverage of the reports. These often require governments to prepare their own reports on progress made, and they can at times generate media interest, with journalists seeking NGO assistance in writing their stories.
The third and strongest mechanism occurs when the U. These meet annually with the sole purpose of reviewing the implementation record of each government over a regular reporting cycle. Again, NGOs are built into the review process and can hold governments to account, both in the committee work and in the media. There is a wide spectrum in the extent to which NGOs exercise influence.
On environmental issues and women's issues, NGOs and governments collaborate comfortably, with NGOs enjoying full legitimacy as part of the political system. However, in some issue areas, such as disarmament, NGOs are sometimes kept at the margins. That said, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and the Cluster Munition Coalition were the prime movers in achieving the drafting and ratification of the treaties on those two issues.
In contrast, on human rights issues, NGOs have had to fight every step of the way. InNGOs successfully lobbied to have the U.
Charter, include the promotion of human rights. However, untilthe principles of sovereignty and noninterference in domestic affairs were rigorously maintained at the U. The first breakthrough came in Maywhen the " procedure" was established to determine whether complaints revealed "a consistent pattern of gross and reliably attested violations.
Inthe "sovereignty barrier" was shattered when Amnesty International's decade-long campaign against torture resulted in the agreement for a Convention against Torture. Those who ratified the convention gained the right to put on trial and imprison torturers, regardless of which country they were from and where the torture had occurred, so long as their own citizens were the victims.
Inthe statute for the International Criminal Court was agreed upon, and inthe necessary 60 ratifications were achieved for the court to be established. At the ICC, again, sovereignty is subordinated to the international community's overriding interest in prosecuting those who commit war crimes, genocide or crimes against humanity when their own government proves unwilling or unable to do so.
The efforts to guarantee that the court was established, led by the NGO Coalition for the ICC, overcame opposition first from the Clinton administration, which attempted to prevent the creation of a strong, independent court; and subsequently from the Bush administration, which mounted a determined and sustained campaign to prevent ratifications.
Simply put, were it not for NGOs, there would be no international law of human rights and no U. A more sophisticated institutional expression of this aspiration takes the form of calls for a "People's Assembly" to be created alongside the U. However, in the foreseeable future, it will be impossible to hold elections for a global parliamentary assembly, and the alternative of an assembly of NGOs would not extend democracy to global governance.
Many NGOs are very small and represent very few people, while many highly respected NGOs do not have any mechanisms for internal democracy.
For example, neither Greenpeace nor Oxfam has any formal membership, and their supporters have no direct voice in the organizations' policies. Faith-based NGOs base their claims of legitimacy on their moral authority and make no claim to democratic authority.
Scientific, technical and professional NGOs are restricted to people with the relevant qualifications. They represent an elite voice offering expertise, rather than a democratic voice. Other NGOs, such as Amnesty International and the trade unions, have millions of members and democratic assemblies, but they too are unrepresentative of the population as a whole.
Whatever their size, each NGO still represents a self-selecting minority. No collection of NGOs would provide a representative policymaking or advisory body. To give a small number of NGOs a decision-making role would be elitist and hence anti-democratic.