Post-Civil War Conditions
The Union victory in the Civil War in may have given some 4 million At the outset of the Civil War, to the dismay of the more radical abolitionists in the North, in his relationship with Congress that would culminate in his impeachment in After , an increasing number of southern whites turned to violence in. The Civil War Timeline () covers the North, the South, African American Soldiers, Freedmen, and Reconstruction with primary sources from American Memory. Following the election to the presidency of Republican Abraham Inspector General | Legal | Accessibility | External Link Disclaimer | az-links.info The Civil War. Differences Between the North and. South. Geography of the North Society of the North – industrial, urban life modeled after Dec. of Ind.
The Wilmot Proviso announced this position in Douglas proclaimed the doctrine of territorial or "popular" sovereignty—which asserted that the settlers in a territory had the same rights as states in the Union to establish or disestablish slavery as a purely local matter.
Krannawitter points out, the "Southern demand for federal slave protection represented a demand for an unprecedented expansion of federal power. Constitution before the presidential election. Northerners including President Buchanan rejected that notion as opposed to the will of the Founding Fathers who said they were setting up a perpetual union. While one or more of these interpretations remain popular among the Sons of Confederate Veterans and other Southern heritage groups, few professional historians now subscribe to them.
Of all these interpretations, the states'-rights argument is perhaps the weakest. It fails to ask the question, states' rights for what purpose? States' rights, or sovereignty, was always more a means than an end, an instrument to achieve a certain goal more than a principle. Sectionalism increased steadily between and as the North, which phased slavery out of existence, industrialized, urbanized, and built prosperous farms, while the deep South concentrated on plantation agriculture based on slave labor, together with subsistence farming for poor freedmen.
In the s and 50s, the issue of accepting slavery in the guise of rejecting slave-owning bishops and missionaries split the nation's largest religious denominations the Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches into separate Northern and Southern denominations.
Most historians now disagree with the economic determinism of historian Charles A.
Beard in the s and emphasize that Northern and Southern economies were largely complementary. While socially different, the sections economically benefited each other. Northern manufacturing interests supported tariffs and protectionism while southern planters demanded free trade,  The Democrats in Congress, controlled by Southerners, wrote the tariff laws in the s, s, and s, and kept reducing rates so that the rates were the lowest since The Republicans called for an increase in tariffs in the election.
The increases were only enacted in after Southerners resigned their seats in Congress. However, neo-Confederate writers have claimed it as a Southern grievance. In —61 none of the groups that proposed compromises to head off secession raised the tariff issue. While practically all Northerners supported the Union, Southerners were split between those loyal to the entire United States called "unionists" and those loyal primarily to the southern region and then the Confederacy.
Vann Woodward said of the latter group, A great slave society It had renounced its bourgeois origins and elaborated and painfully rationalized its institutional, legal, metaphysical, and religious defenses When the crisis came it chose to fight.
It proved to be the death struggle of a society, which went down in ruins. The Republican national electoral platform of warned that Republicans regarded disunion as treason and would not tolerate it: Southerners did not realize how ardently the North would fight to hold the Union together.
United States presidential election, Abraham Lincoln in The election of Abraham Lincoln in November was the final trigger for secession.
Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction. The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organizations targeted local Republican leaders, white and black, and other African Americans who challenged white authority.
Though federal legislation passed during the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant in took aim at the Klan and others who attempted to interfere with black suffrage and other political rights, white supremacy gradually reasserted its hold on the South after the early s as support for Reconstruction waned.
Racism was still a potent force in both South and North, and Republicans became more conservative and less egalitarian as the decade continued. In —after an economic depression plunged much of the South into poverty—the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives for the first time since the Civil War.
Reconstruction - HISTORY
When Democrats waged a campaign of violence to take control of Mississippi inGrant refused to send federal troops, marking the end of federal support for Reconstruction-era state governments in the South. In the contested presidential election that year, Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes reached a compromise with Democrats in Congress: We see war "up close and personal. Eyewitness accounts by reporters and soldiers were relayed via telegraph to the country's 2, newspapers, printed almost immediately and then read voraciously by citizens desperate to know how their boys were faring.
The Civil War created a tradition of intimate war reportage that is still with us today. Take this excerpt from a dispatch from George Townsend, who was just 20 when he began to cover the war for the New York Herald: There were some who had been shot in the bowels, and now and then they were frightfully convulsed, breaking into shrieks and shouts. Some of them iterated a single word, as, 'doctor,' or 'help,' or 'God,' or 'oh!
The act of calling seemed to lull the pain. Many were unconscious and lethargic, moving their finger, and lips mechanically, but never more to open their eyes upon the light; they were already going through the valley and the shadow.
John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War, says that the front-line dispatches influenced his modern battlefront reporting. Otherwise, they're just statistics.
But the Civil War was the first such conflict recorded by photographers the most famous of whom was Mathew Brady. Because the primitive wet-plate technology of the era required that subjects be still at the moment the camera's shutter snapped, images of the era depict virtually every aspect of the war but one: But that in time would change, too. We hold certain rights to be sacred.
Think of these three amendments to the U.
Constitution, all ratified within five years of the end of the Civil War: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.North & South (Book 1)(Part 3) 1985
Before the Civil War, the concept of liberty and justice for all meant little unless you were white and male. Going beyond the abolition of slavery, the 14th and 15th amendments were the first extensions of citizenship and voting rights to minority groups. Of course, half of us — women — went without a voice untilbut the postwar laws set a precedent that eventually would lead to suffrage for all adults.
Imperfect in practice over the next years, voting rights finally gained protection through the Civil Rights Act, ensuring that bigotry could never again disenfranchise any U. It took the War Between the States to make us one nation, indivisible. Beforethe United States were loosely tied entities and always described as a plural noun, as in, "The United States are in trade with France. Although the Union stopped Confederate Gen.
Lee's Northern invasion, young men's bodies littered the farms and gardens that had turned into a battleground. Was the preservation of these united states worth the cost in blood? At a memorial for the dead, Lincoln intentionally called on the Union to persevere for a single national ideal: It was also forged in the experience of hunger, disease, blood and death shared for four years by the Union and Confederacy alike.
Tellingly, the tradition of Civil War reenactments began even before the conflict had ended, as returning soldiers recreated battlefield scenes at home to educate the citizenry and pay tribute to their fallen comrades. They become the focus of myth and the anchor of meaning for a whole society. Ever since, whether big government or small government, whether doves or hawks, black or white, we have all been one thing: Betsy Towner lives in California.