Research questions, hypotheses and objectives
Before stating the research questions and objectives, a few reflections upon the basis The specification of research questions or hypotheses (i.e., what is to be studied) RQ4: What are the most prominent relationships between purposes. Objectives, Research Methodology, Hypotheses and Data. Analysis Tools of Research is defined by different authors; some of the definitions given by few known relationships, causal explanation and the natural laws which govern them. Learning Objectives: Define research question and research hypothesis. Explain the difference between a research question and a research hypothesis and describe the Provide examples of research questions and research hypotheses.
Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided there is an improvement with treatmentthe study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise. According to this principle, a clinical or surgical trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated.
Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective. Research objective The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol.
Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. Objectives can and often do state exactly which outcome measures are going to be used within their statements. They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study.
Research questions, hypotheses and objectives
For example, the most methodologically sound randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques of distal radial fixation would have little or no clinical impact if the primary objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on intraoperative fluoroscopy time.
However, if the objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on patient functional outcome at 1 year, this would have a much more significant impact on clinical decision-making.
Second, more meaningful surgeon—patient discussions could ensue, incorporating patient values and preferences with the results from this study. The following is an example from the literature about the relation between the research question, hypothesis and study objectives: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: How does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound LIPUS compare with a placebo device in managing the symptoms of skeletally mature patients with patellar tendinopathy?
Conclusion The development of the research question is the most important aspect of a research project. A research project can fail if the objectives and hypothesis are poorly focused and underdeveloped. Useful tips for surgical researchers are provided in Box 3. Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task.
The critical appraisal of the research question used in a study is vital to the application of the findings to clinical practice. If so, you will be using a hypothesis.
Or is your research more exploratory and investigative in nature and will require that you collect data and analyze results before drawing any conclusions? If this describes your research topic, you will be developing a research question.
Understanding this difference and choosing the correct approach will drive the rest of your research project. The following sections further describe research questions and hypotheses and provide examples of each. Used to analyze and investigate a topic.
It is written as a question and is inquisitive in nature. A properly written question will be clear and concise. It should contain the topic being studied purposethe variable sand the population. Three main types of questions: Causal Questions — Compares two or more phenomena and determines if a relationship exists. Often called relationship research questions.
Does the amount of calcium in the diet of elementary school children effect the number of cavities they have per year? How often do college-aged students use Twitter?Research aim, research objective, research question, and investigative question
Develop a methodological framework based on the above-mentioned assertions to guide practitioners in their enterprise modeling efforts. RO1 focuses on current enterprise modeling practice the is part of the main research question.
The Difference Between Research Questions & Hypothesis | Sciencing
RO2 seeks to answer the should part of the main research question, based on the practice observed and summarized as a part of meeting RO1.
The research questions presented above cannot be given an exhaustive answer, at least not within the limited scope of a doctoral study. Narrowing of the questions question is required. Most of the focus in this thesis is on RQ1 and RQ2: The purposes, use and process of enterprise modeling. These are the aspects perceived to be least developed in current literature on the topic of enterprise modeling.
Some limitations of the study are also pointed out in chapter The meaning of the terms become more sophisticated in chapter 3 after the introduction of additional theory, but a brief and informal outline is given here. Enterprise modeling can be thought of as describing selected aspects of an organization, e. There are no restrictions on how the description is given, although a graphical layout in terms of a diagram or a drawing is considered typical. Sense-making subsumes understanding, but has some connotations: Sense-making stresses that the focus is on the process of understanding, not on a final state of knowing.
Further, sense-making is an active term, indicating the creation of meaning and not merely passive interpretation. Sense-making is as much a matter of invention as it is of discovery, according to Weick Finally, sense-making implies not only attribution of meaning, but also incorporation of this meaning into a coherent whole.
Communication is taken to mean the exchange of information between actors, relying on a more or less common language.