Research began to examine the relationships between writing and reading as cognitive and social processes. Throughout the last decade, research has. on the relation of reading and writing. The research into reading–writing connections has taken .. terns of relation among reading and writing and other. connection between reading and writing as well as to point out their similarities and differences. Moreover, we wi l l dis c uss some research undertaken based.
Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4.
Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts.
Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. Most studies find that reading and writing are highly related e. However, less is known about the developmental nature of the interrelations.
Whereas some earlier studies examined correlations e. Structural equation models include various measures to form reading and writing latent factors. In an exploratory multivariate analysis, Shanahan examined the relation among several reading measures phonics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary and writing measures vocabulary diversity, syntactic complexity, qualitative and quantitative measures of spelling and story organization of approximately students in grades 2 and 5, and showed that correlations between the reading and writing measures ranged from.
Shanahan and Lomax'sstudies are one of the earliest examples of structural equation models used to examine potential bidirectional reading-writing relations.
Their studies included three factors for reading phonetic word analysis, vocabulary, and comprehension and four for writing spelling, vocabulary diversity, syntax, and story structurewhere reading comprehension, spelling and story structure were latent variables comprised of two or more observed variables. Their results showed that the bidirectional model provided the best fit to the data in grades two and five in comparison to the alternative unidirectional models, where reading factors influenced writing factors and writing factors influenced reading factors.
The Relationship Between Reading and Writing
A recent study of the development of spelling and word-level reading in Dutch 1st through 6th graders reported divergence in their developmental patterns. One frequently used approach is cross-lagged correlational or structural equation modeling. Cross-lagged models use longitudinal data, and examine how one variable in the model influences itself over time i.
Finnish is a transparent orthography and has more direct letter sound correspondences than English i. Their analyses included one latent variable for initial reading skills letter naming and word list readingone latent variable for reading word reading and reading comprehension and two latent variables for writing, spelling and writing fluency measured as writing as many words or sentences, or a story about a given picture. The model was a cross-lag SEM including bidirectional relations between the reading factor and a writing factor.
Initial reading skill was added as a covariate to predict Time 1 reading and writing. After removing non-significant pathways, their results showed that reading and spelling were reciprocally related during the first semester, but in subsequent semesters, reading predicted spelling, and writing fluency predicted reading. Some studies have reported that writing influences reading e.How to Read a Research Paper
Part of the reasons for the mixed findings from previous studies is that previous studies varied in the number and type of indicators used to represent constructs. For example, Lerkkanen et al. Shanahan and Lomax on the other hand included separate latent factors for components of reading word analysis, vocabulary, and comprehension and components of writing spelling, vocabulary diversity, syntax, and story structure in a single multivariate model.
Levels of Language Approach Recent studies have analyzed separate components of reading and writing based on a levels of language approach that differentiates the levels of the word, sentence and passage Abbott et al. This approach is supported by the finding that intraindividual differences exist across levels of language word, sentence, and text for reading e. Research on linguistics, psychology and educational sciences further suggests there are common constructs underlying literacy development.
These constructs include knowledge of phonological structures, knowledge of the alphabetic principle, fluency in decoding and encoding, comprehension of oral and written language, and wide reading and writing Foorman et al. Decoding and encoding words Alphabetic writing systems rely on a relatively small number of orthographic units or letters that map roughly onto the phonemes of speech. For encoding the same word, however, a writer chooses from the s, sh, or ch orthographic paths Shanahan, ; Sprenger-Charolles et al.
Most researchers suggest that encoding is not a reversal of decoding, although both rely on knowledge of the alphabetic principle Abbott et al.
The Relationship Between Writing and Reading - NCTE
Sentence reading and writing The grammatical rules and punctuations used in creating sentences are attributes of syntax Shanahan, Both readers and writers rely on meaningful syntactic orderings of words as well as the knowledge of punctuation marks to create sentence boundaries. Several studies have shown that children are sensitive to linguistic constrains in oral language as well as written language e. Research on combining sentences suggests that writers first acquire syntax and semantics at the level of the phrase, but they are unable to form larger units of meaning without error Rose, Research on syntactic complexity of writing has shown that writers use complex syntactic structures e.
Although both reading and writing of sentences begin with developing clauses within sentences, little research has been conducted to examine the development of reading and writing at the sentence level. This is especially true for younger children who are working to develop phonemic awareness and phonics skills. Similarly, phonics skills or the ability to link sounds together to construct words are reinforced when children read and write the same words.
For older children practice in the process of writing their own texts helps them analyze the pieces that they read.
The Relationship Between Writing and Reading
In order to help children develop these two essential skills, parents and teachers need to apply this knowledge when working with them. Here are a few strategies for using reading and writing to reinforce development of literacy skills. Genre Study One of the most effective ways to use the relationship between reading and writing to foster literacy development is by immersing children in a specific genre.
They should then study this genre with the child ren from the reading and writing perspectives. Children should read and discuss with adults high quality examples of works written in the genre focusing on its structure and language as well as other basic reading skills including phonics and comprehension. Once children have studied the genre to identify its essential elements, they should be given opportunities to write in the genre.
As they are writing, adults should help them apply what they have learned from reading genre specific texts to guide their composition. This process should be recursive to allow children to repeatedly move between reading and writing in the genre. In the end children will not only have a solid and rich knowledge of the genre, but will also have strengthened their general reading and writing skills. Texts can be used on limited basis to help children learn and strengthen specific writing skills.
Parents and teachers should first identify writing skills that a particular child or group of children need support in developing. For example, many students in a seventh grade class might have difficulty writing attention getting introductions in their essays. One of the most effective ways to help children build specific writing skills is to show and discuss with them models that successfully demonstrate the skill.
Once children have explored effective models of the skill, they should be given opportunities to practice it.
Without understanding the connection between sounds and letters, a person cannot read. The connection between reading and writing can help solidify these skills in young readers. Similarly, if a child wants to write a new word the adult s can use the same technique to help her choose which letters to write.