Op-ed: No end to poverty without better governance
Jan 13, We applied ARDL approach to co integration in order to establish the direction of the relationship between governance and poverty reduction in. Jun 2, The link between good governance and poverty eradication is premised on the presumption that good governance promotes economic growth. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of governance and povrety on economic growth of a set To investigate the relationship between poverty.
However, it has to be based on social consented civil, political, socio, environmental, economic and cultural rights. Third, a decision may be taken between one-dimensional and multidimensional measures, and between head-count, gap and severity indicators. In the other hand a head count ratio identify only the percentage or the population that is considered as poor, while a poverty gap identify the average distance between the current state and the threshold.
Finally, a severity index is concerned about the poverty gap but also on the distribution between the poor i.
Is Good Governance Key To Eliminating Poverty?
In any case it also has to be defined if a threshold is set for a minimum or for a maximum e. Governance and poverty The definition of development agenda has its own political process. Now a day, one of the expected outcomes is an objective for poverty alleviation, which is based on a set of 3 decisions most of the times unconsciously related with the aforementioned issues.
However the decision to design and implement a strategy to achieve the defined poverty alleviation goal is a complete new process. Nobody will say that poverty should not be alleviated, but no everybody is willing to take the decisions to make that happen. Finally, there is not agreement about the mechanisms and mandates to alleviate poverty. In order to deal with this process, the concern about governance is related whit the importance of enhancing the scope of common people to influence policies, laws and to promote their rights Aminuzzaman, ; DiCaprio, It is about consider the poor no as potential beneficiaries, but as actors whom can influence the policy process and the allocation of resources.
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- Op-ed: No end to poverty without better governance
In this sense, poverty governance is also related with the design of policies and programs, its quality, and the institutional framework Grindle, ; Hulme and Shepherd, ; Owen, ; Rakodi, Under this perspective poverty governance is both a mechanisms to reduce poverty and a poverty alleviation objective by itself.
Aminuzzaman propose than in order to generate a new framework of pro-poor governance economic inequalities must be reduced, while political participation has to be promoted.
Besides, the accountability from the government needs to be generated in order to create confidence. At the policy level it has to be recognized that poverty is just not an economic issues or problem, but more of a political and policy issue demanding the changes in the political processes and mind set as well as structures of policies.
It is now empirically established that though the negative consequences of weak governance affect the entire population, but have a particularly severe impact on the poor, women, and other marginalized groups whose vulnerability to traditional social biases and inequitable power relations place their rights and interests at risk.
In this situation, poverty governance may be considered in process of decentralization, which also may improve quality of design and implementation, and accountability. Nevertheless, it is not adequate if local elites can capture control of the whole process Bradhan, While efficiency is desirable, redistribution to alleviation poverty, enhance human capital and guarantee a dignified life are also desirable objectives even if economic efficiency is not fully achieved.
In this sense, development objectives of a society have to be defined not just from an economic perspective, but by a complete process of governance as the framework for the policy process.
Besides, the evidence to support a trade off between equity and efficiency is contradictory, and there are a number of cases to argue that equity and poverty alleviation generates efficiency for economic growth Bardhan, Another common argument to reduce redistribution is that economic growth is sufficient and the best mechanism to reduce poverty.
However, it depend as aforementioned on the definition of poverty. Besides, there is more than enough evidence to argue that the effect of economic growth on poverty reduction depends on initial inequalities, the processes of redistribution and the pro-poor characteristics of economic development Bardhan, ; Bourguignon, ; Ravallion, Despite the relevance of the definition issues presented in section II and the relevance of the institutional framework and quality of implementation, a key point for the understanding of poverty governance is related with the allocation of resources and the sustainability of anti-poverty policies, which requires financial space but maybe more important political will.
One of the main obstacles has been related with budget constraints. However, there are an increasing number of studies that shows the fiscal feasibility ILO, to introduce social protection schemes in both developed and developing countries, and also about their social and economic benefits DFID, This section argues that resources allocation for poverty prevention and alleviation policies is more related with political decisions than with the availability of fiscal resources, and then to generate evidence for the analysis of poverty governance.
Figure 1 presents the relation between per capita output and public social expenditure. This figure shows that at the same level of economic development, it possible to observe complete different allocation of public resources in the social sector.
Figure 2 5 presents the same relation but only for low and middle income countries, where the fact that social expenditure does not depend on the level of economic development can also be observed.
And then, the question of why, for example, Jordan and Thailand has more than then points of difference in the percentage of GDP allocated for social expenditure, but similar level of economic development, is related with differences on poverty governance, as defined early in this paper. This evidence shows that is not economic development what determine the level of anti-poverty policies, but it is related with political will and social commitment.
Williams drew attention to its inevitable panacea which include respect for the rule of law, better human rights protections, independent judiciary, limited government and infrastructure for basic transportation, communication, water and electricity.
These funds also provide fat retirement accounts for these leaders.Globalization and Trade and Poverty: Crash Course Economics #16
It is evidently syllogism that a government that does not respect the rule of law will be arbitrary in its actions, and an arbitrary government cannot keep promises, even those sworn to. An arbitrary government does not have the political will to provide for the welfare of its citizens.
This type of government does not see poverty as a problem but as a tool of subjugation, a resource for veritable and ready inflow of thugs, bootlickers and cronies as well as an umbrella for more easily accessible corruption funds. Perhaps one should differentiate between good governance and good government. To many people, this may seem utopian, many other societies have tried it and it has worked.
Nigeria is one of these countries. WCED's thesis of sustainable development posits that the present generation has been reckless and wasteful both in its exploitation and use of natural resources by pursuing a series of socio-economic and industrial policies which endangers global environmental security.
It urged governments to pursue a new developmental strategy that can both ensure continued economic growth and ecological stability with less exploitation and use of natural resources. It condemned the inequalities with and among nations and called for a restructuring of contemporary economic relations to guarantee an equitable distribution of national and international wealth Natufe, However, the s strategies, primarily aimed at environmental protection took account of the need for development while recognizing that the environment could not in all cases sustain unlimited development.
Today, the concept of sustainable development is a notion around which legally significant expectations regarding environment conduct have begun to crystallize. The initiative is a testimony to the currency of sustainable development in global polity.
Sustainable development implies three primary factors of economic, social and environment. An economically sustainable system must be able to produce goods and services on a continuing basis and maintain manageable economy without jeopardizing sectoral balances of economic activities of the country.
Environmentally sustainable system must maintain a stable resource base, avoiding over-exploitation of renewable resource systems or environmental sink functions and depleting non-renewable resources only to the extent that investment is made in adequate substitutes. This includes maintenance of biodiversity, atmospheric stability and other ecosystem functions not ordinarily classified as economic resources.
The last factor must achieve distributional equity, adequate provision of social services including health and education, gender equity and political accountability, transparency and participation.
This must be with dynamic understanding of human rights that is developing very rapidly. This implies poverty alleviation; Improvements in health and nutritional status especially children and young mothers who are vulnerable to most preventable diseases; Education achievement; Access to resources; A fairer equitable distribution of income. The basic salary of the least paid worker should be adequate to maintain his nuclear family; Increases in basic freedoms and guaranteed security of all citizens; respect and responsible relationship with ecosystem.
What is poverty and how can it be eradicated? Poverty is not only a lack of money to take care of basic necessity of life it creates a picture of aimlessness, uncertainty and hopelessness at the extreme in the mind of the poor. Where there is no infrastructure and services, people will lack pipe borne water supplies, sewage connections or adequate toilet facilities, garbage collection and basic measures to prevent disease and provide health care.
Such deficiencies promote diarrhea, dysenteries, typhoid, intestinal parasites and food poisoning and not development. When combined with malnutrition, these can so weaken the body's defence system and measles, pneumonia and other common childhood diseases become major killers Cairncross, The poor in particular are anxious about the future in regard to the national political life at elections, the degradation of the environment with its devastating consequences, disasters and their destructive effect, the high rise of inequality among people coupled with mass unemployment.
There is high level of selfishness in the society with people looking only to their needs and fearful of others. Crime rate is high and the future of generation yet unborn is clouded with uncertainty. Poverty in Africa is a reality created not only by the internal contradictions like conflict, war, illiteracy, nepotism and corruption within the continent but also and more importantly, by the unequal trade relations between the North and South.
Africa lacks the basic requirements necessary to participate effectively and profitably in international trade. It lacks capital and technical expertise. Foreign debts of African states accrued over a period of time as a result of large-scale borrowing with nothing to show for it by the way of development and a dependent form of growth which was virtually built into the postwar International Economic System IES. Although, a lot of the foreign debt of many African countries has been forgiven, the scar of the wound is yet to heal.
Poverty Governance | Andres Mideros Mora - az-links.info
The IES is primarily profit orientated. Consequently, everything could be sacrificed on the altar of profit to the detriment of development of peoples and individuals, the often stated corporative responsibility of multinationals towards their overseas constituencies notwithstanding.
Combating poverty through provision of improved basic services enhances rights of participation, entitlements and better income-generation opportunities.
These reduce the pressure on local ecosystems. In this context, appropriate frame-work conditions for example, good governance and secured entitlements are key prerequisites here. Global governance requires effective multilateral institutions and the rigorous implementation of international agreements at regional and national level.
It also requires good governance in terms of the rule of law, legal certainty for citizens and enterprises, respect for basic human rights, government accountability and anticorruption measures. This enabling environment will help the implementation of national strategies for sustainable development and the national action plans to compact poverty. It will also help to streamline in a consistent and coherent way at national and local level in order to improve the effectiveness and impact of the resources allocation.
Without fundamental economic, social and political reforms and a change of behavior especially on the part of the elite of the South, African efforts to free themselves from the all-pervasive problems of poverty, violence, environmental degradation are bound to fail.
The Relationship Between Poverty And Good Governance
In the country, Nigeria must continue to vigorously pursue its reform programmes but this must be done with a human face. It should also promote and address behavioral change and any potential conflicts between the objectives of economic development, poverty reduction and environmental policy. Where there is poverty, there may not be development, yet Africa is an environment of poverty that needs to develop!
Consequences of symbiotic relationship between poverty and development using environmental degradation as a platform Environmental degradation in Nigeria manifests in many forms, including the following: As a result of the degradation there is, among others, a gradual increase in the global temperature leading to global warming which causes flooding with its human and financial implications Oyeshola, Another consequence of environmental degradation leads to intra-personal, interpersonal and communal conflicts.
These conflicts arise as a result of undue pressure on the physical environment, degradation, pollution, resource depletion, unfair resource sharing based on conflicting values, differing cultures and national interest, which make people and often neighbours to fight to take position of the leftover of the degradation and inadequate resources.
Environmental conflict situations in the Nigerian context include conflicts arising from deforestation leading to erosion, flood, washing away of surface soil of agricultural farmland and by so doing leaving the soil infertile.
Other areas are gas flaring and oil spillage with their attendant consequences. Furthermore, desertification, pollution and reckless waste dumping can also be mentioned.
When the environment is unhealthy due to poverty and resources inadequacy the implication of derivative difficulties arising therefrom, may be devastating, making development almost impossible. In a poor environment, diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza and meningitis are easily transmitted from one person to another.
Their spread is often helped by low resistance among inhabitants due to malnutrition. Also, the concentration of smoke necessitated by a combination of open fires, stove and coal or biomass fuels used for cooking and heating contribute to serious respiratory problems especially among women and children.
In a poor environment, mosquitoes and tsetse flies are in abundance in many places and they cause diseases. Drinking and using untreated water lead to the spread of diarrhea and other diseases.