Marriage in Hinduism - Wikipedia
Brahma is the creator of the universe while Vishnu is the preserver of it. It is Shiva's relationship with his wife, Parvati which brings him Their union allows him to be an ascetic and a lover, but within the bounds of marriage. According to Hinduism, marriage between two souls is a very sacred affair that stretches beyond one lifetime and may continue up to at least seven lives. Women's roles were laid out in Hindu law books such as the Prior to marriage the female is regulated by her father and then when she is The wives of Brahmin priests can act as assistants to their husbands on ritual.
Because of its use of force this marriage is essentially rape in modern parlance, and it was never considered right - hence the pejorative name rakshasa attached to it. This is condemned in the Manusmriti as a base and sinful act. In modern times it is a crime. Arjuna 's marriage to Subhadra was made to look like this but in reality it was a Gandharva Marriage because both of them were in love a priori and they had the consent of Subhadra's brother Sri Krishna who actually suggested this subterfuge to preempt Balarama from dissent.
Paishacha marriage - When a man by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or mentally challenged, it is called Paishacha marriage. In modern times this is called Date Rape and is a crime in most civilized lands. Hindu wedding A Hindu Marriage Ceremony in progression Wedding ceremonies can be expensive, and costs are typically borne by the parents. It is not uncommon for middle-or upper-class weddings to have a guest list of over people.
Often, a live instrumental band plays. Vedic rituals are performed and the family and friends then bless the couple. Food is served to all the invitees with lots of delicacies. The wedding celebrations can take up to one week depending on the practice in different parts of India.
Types of Hindu marriage and rituals[ edit ] Historically the vedic marriage was but one of the few different types of Hindu marriage customs. Love marriage was also seen in historical Hindu literature and has been variously described by many names, such as Gandharva vivaha.
In certain poor vaishnav communities there is still a custom called kanthi-badal which is an exchange of bead-garlands as a very simplified form of ritual in solitude in front of an idol of Krishna, considered a form of acceptable love marriage.
Elopement has also been described in old Hindu literature. Lord Krishna himself eloped with Rukmini on a horse chariot. It is written that Rukmini's father was going to marry her to Shishupal, against her wishes. Rukimini sent a letter to Krishna informing of a place and time to pick her up. Symbolic rituals followed by married Hindu women[ edit ] The married Hindu women in different parts of India follow different customs.
Mostly sindoormangalsutra and bangles are considered as signs of a married woman. In some places, in especially Eastern Indiainstead of mangalsutra they put only vermilion on the hair parting, wear a pair of conch bangles shankhared bangles pala and an iron bangle on the left hand loha while their husband is alive.
In southern Indiaa married woman may wear a necklace with a distinctive pendant called a thali and silver toe-rings. Both are put on her by the husband during the wedding ceremony. The pendant on the thali is custom-made and its design is different from family to family. Apart from this, the married woman also wears a red vermilion sindhoor dot on her forehead called kumkum and whenever possible flowers in her hair and bangles.
In medieval times a married woman used to be encouraged to give up all of these when her husband died. This is no longer the practice in many progressive communities any more.
In the Kashmiri tradition, women wear a small gold chain with a small gold hexagonal bead hanging from the chain through their upper ear which is a sign of being married.Brahma got married own Daughters Behind the story
The married woman in Kumaon Uttarakhand wear a yellow cloth called pichoda. At the actual wedding, Hindu brides wear bright colored outfits. A red sari or lengha, is usually what the bride wears, she may even choose to wear more than one outfit. The first one is the one she comes to the ceremony wearing from her family, and the second one she gets to change into half-way through the ceremony, which is given to her by her husband and his family.
Love marriage differs from arranged marriage in that the couple, rather than the parents, choose their own partner.
Marriage in Hinduism
There are various instances from ancient scriptures of Hinduism, of romantic love marriages that were accepted in ancient times, for example Dushyanta and Shakuntala in the story of the Mahabharata. Somewhere in the course of time, arranged marriages became predominant and love marriages became unacceptable or at least frowned upon.
The goal of marriage in Hinduism is to foster, not self-interest, but self-restraint and love for the entire family, which keeps the family united and prevents its breakdown. Sex roles and marital adjustment India is largely a patriarchal society. The traditional dyad is the husband with high masculinity and the wife with high femininity. Cross-culturally, the masculine stereotype remains stable, the female one changes; family-orientated traits which are seen as feminine in western culture are seen as gender-neutral and valued in India; both traditional and modern traits are valued in Indian women; and sex differences are mainly along the lines of greater autonomy for men.
A recent study by Issac and Shah[ 3 ] reported a positive link between androgyny and marital adjustment, and a trend for couples to move toward gender-neutral dyads. Dowry and Hindu marriage Dowry is a custom in Hindu marriage since times immemorial. These two aspects got entangled and in due course assumed the frightening name of dowry.
For obtaining dowry compulsion, coercion and occasionally force had to be exercised. Ultimately most marriages became a bargain. Over the years dowry has turned into a widespread social evil. Surprisingly, it has spread to other communities, which were traditionally non-dowry receiving communities. Demand for dowry has resulted in cruelty, domestic violence, and death by homicide or suicide.
Marriage of women The prescription of marriage is more stringent for women. Women must get married. After marriage, her husband's home is her home. In India, marriage and family dominate the life of women.
After marriage, husband and relatives control all outside relationships. No wonder non-solemnization of marriage of young daughters, separation or divorce is very stressful not only for the woman, but for the entire family. Marriage brings security and dignity to Indian women.
Women’s Roles in Hinduism | Mahavidya
Unmarried status in India is stigma especially for females. The sociologist Susan Wadley after examining the identity of women in folklore, myths, and legends rooted in history, observed that the Indian woman is constantly made to adopt contradictory roles — the nurturing roles as daughters, mothers, wives, and as daughter-in-laws, and the stereotyped role of a weak and helpless woman.
The latter is fostered to ensure complete dependence on the male sex. Consequently, the constant movement from strength to passivity leads to enormous stress placing the woman's mental health under constant threat. Ramasamy Periyar paved the way for social reform.
In India, the first movement of marital rights of women centered on three major problems, child marriage, enforced widowhood, and property rights of women. The Dowry Prohibition Act[ 7 ] was enacted to curb the dowry menace. The law was found to fail to stall this evil. Dowry Death B [ 8 ] was later enacted.
Where the death of the woman occurred in unnatural circumstances within 7 years of marriage and it is shown that she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or his relatives in connection with any demand for dowry, it would be presumed to be a dowry death, deemed to be caused by the husband or his relatives.
Mental disorders can either result in marital discord or may be caused by marital disharmony. In predisposed individuals, marriage can cause mental-health problems. Greater distress is seen in among married women compared to married men and greater distress in single women as compared to single men. The ever married suffered more than those who were never married. This causes misery and stigma and further complicates their problems by making them more susceptible to development or exacerbation of psychiatric disorders after marriage.
Women and Marriage in Hinduism
The neurotic problems encountered were either antecedents or consequences of marital disharmony. In a prospective study of subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder being married significantly increased the probability of partial remission. There is some evidence that within marriage, the traditional role of the female is limiting, restricting and even boring, which may lead to depression.
Suicide Studies in China and India report that single individuals are not more vulnerable to suicide than their married counterparts. In countries like India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, where arranged marriages are common, the social and familial pressure on a woman to stay married even in abusive relationships appears to be one of the factors that increases the risk of suicide in women.
When dowry expectations are not met, young brides can be harassed to the point where they are driven to suicide. Social approval of alcohol use has generally been for men. Thus, rates for alcohol use are much lower in women. Alcohol intake by spouse results in marital problems. The divorce rate among heavy drinkers is high and the wives of such men are likely to be anxious, depressed and socially isolated.
Besides, women admitted with self-poisoning blame the drinking habit of the husband. The 5-year follow-up study[ 21 ] of patients attending a teaching hospital, reported a better clinical and social outcome for women.
The better outcome could be because it was an out-patient sample with lesser degree of impairments. At the end of 10 years, however, there were no significant difference in the outcome. Being married before the onset of illness, presence of children, a shorter duration of illness at inclusion and the presence of auditory hallucinations at intake were all associated with a good marital outcome.
Being unemployed, experiencing a drop in socioeconomic level and the presence of flat affect and self-neglect for 10 years were all associated a poor marital outcome. The ratio of male: A greater number of female patients were in the category of patients who had been untreated for a long-time. The main reason attributed for these findings was the low-priority is given to the mental-health of women compared to men.
The fact that women generally are presented at a later age with schizophrenia raises issues about the losses these women sustain with regard to established relationships, careers and children. All except eight lived with their parents. Twenty children were taken care of by the patients themselves or their parents. Only six children were cared by the husbands. Lack of awareness and the widespread belief that marriage is a panacea for all evils prompted some parents to get their daughters married even when they were symptomatic.
Several needs were expressed for the separated women including to simplify the legal measures. It is noteworthy that women with severe mental illness are discriminated in a big way. While wives are more tolerant, husbands are not and many of the marriages women with the mental illness end sooner or later. The women with severe mental illness are ostracized on three accounts. The observations of other workers are in the same line. From the analysis of records of outpatients of the Institute of Mental Health at Chennai,[ 1 ] it emerged that majority of treatment seekers were males 3: Domestic violence and mental illness Domestic violence means violence that occurs within the family.
Domestic violence is considered as one of the burning social problem of the present day in India. The married women with major mental illness form an extremely vulnerable population at high-risk for various forms of abuse. The incidents of wife battering, harassment by husband and in-laws, dowry deaths, suicides, kitchen accidents occur on a large scale. Many cases go unreported. The victims are unable to raise their voice, nor protect against violence.
In the past, it was mainly hidden behind the four walls of the house. Those within did not wish to speak about it. Those outside did not want to hear it. Social practices, customs, beliefs, myths, and patriarchy are the important causative factors for domestic violence in India. It has emerged as a risk factor for poor mental health.
This age-old practice continues to survive and has been a significant factor that has driven many women to suicide. Risk-factors for domestic violence include alcoholic husbands, illiterate or poorly educated couple, poor socioeconomic status, women with no income of their own, and dowry problems. It is very important to identify and treat domestic violence in those with mental illness. In half of all murders committed by domestic partners, serious mental illness contributes to the risk.
The mental health problems related to domestic violence are varying in nature. Many women accept it as normal in India and suffer in silence. A few react with physical aggression. The psychological symptoms emerge as subsyndromal or diagnosable disorders. It provides for more effective protection of the rights of women in a domestic relationship, guaranteed under the Constitution who are victims of violence of any kind.
Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives is also covered under this definition. This act has the following important features: The respondent has to be an adult male. It appreciates that the marital relation is a delicate, personal and private relationship.
Women and Marriage in Hinduism | Mahavidya
It appreciates the fact that victim of domestic violence is often unprivileged in many ways. It provides various reliefs such as a protection, residence, maintenance monetary reliefcustody and compensation orders and emergency help. It provides necessary help in lodging the report. It provides free legal aid to the woman. It assumes that the woman would always safeguard the relationship. It adopts a reconciliatory approach. It empowers the woman. Criminal proceedings would be initiated only when the woman requests for the same.
It is a double-edged weapon. It should be used to protect women, not to take revenge on men. Despite the presence of severe mental illness parents are determined to marry their mentally sick daughters. Besides, most boys prefer arranged marriages because they fetch good dowry. The woman with mental illness, who is ill-treated and abandoned by her husband and in-laws, seeks restitution of conjugal rights rather than divorce. Interesting observations were made in South India.
Similar observation was made by Sharma and Tripathi[ 31 ] in Northern India, where the separated women continued to put vermillion on their heads. The Dowry Prohibition Act[ 7 ] sometimes promotes dowry rather than curbing it. A handsome dowry glamorizes the marriage proposal, so as to distract the other party from the deficiencies in the daughter. After marriage, when marital problems arise because of mental illness in the woman, gifts are offered to pacify the husband and his relatives.
The paradoxical situations cited above can be understood in light of the prevailing deep rooted social value systems relating to marriage in India. It also provides for four matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, judicial separation, divorce, and restitution of conjugal rights.
The legal provisions are often violated in the marriages of patients with mental illness because of the strong impact of Indian culture. They are mentioned below: Remarriages of husbands and wives, separated because of mental illness take place without formal divorce. In a series of marriages of married women with mental illness from Varanasi at a tertiary care hospital, it was observed that