Vroom expectancy motivation theory | Employee motivation theories | YourCoach Gent
What is the difference between Expectancy Theory and Equity Theory? In expectancy theory, external forces do not affect motivation but. Strategic Communication for Sustainable Organizations According to the theory motivational force ¼ expectancy x instrumentality x valence. Motivation is. Motivation II: Equity, Expectancy, and Goal Setting Describe the practical implications of expectancy theory. Exchange Relationship Managers need to develop and communicate performance standards to employees; Managers need.
Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity: A manufacturing company had lost two large contracts which forced the company to temporarily reduce pay of their employees in Plants A and B while employees in Plant C did not have to reduce pay. Plant A workers received a minute meeting to explain these pay cuts while workers of Plant B received only a minute meeting.
Greenberg hypothesized that Plant B would experience a large increase in employee theft, Plant A would experience a slight increase, while Plant C's theft rate would stay the same. Two categories of dependent measures were used, data on employee theft and self-report measures were reported as well Greenberg, Once again, his theories were correct. Plant B experienced a large increase in theft while Plant A experienced a smaller increase.
Plant C's employee theft remained the same Greenberg, Product quality and pay equity between lower-level employees and top management: An investigation of distributive justice theory.
Cowherd and Levine used a sample business units in 41 corporations to examine whether the size of the pay differential between lower-level employees and top management had any impact on product quality. Cowherd and Levine suggest that individuals often compare their pay to that of people higher in the organization structure. If lower-level employees feel inequitably treated, they may seek to reduce their effort to achieve equity. Quality, in their study, was defined as customer perceptions of the quality of goods and services.
They hypothesized that extra role, or citizenship behaviors, such as freely offering to help others, following the spirit rather than letter of rules, and correcting errors that would ordinarily escape notice, would be less likely when pay differentials between hourly and top managerial employees were large.
Their results supported this hypothesis, suggesting that organizations need to take care that they do not forget the potential adverse motivational consequences of executive pay for the motivation of other employees.
The Equity Sensitive Construct Gauging the level of tolerance for inequities is an important field of study in Equity Theory. From an employer's perspective, it may often be necessary to know which employees will be sensitive to any level of inequalities derived from work policies or practices.
The proposition of the study was that some individuals are uniquely sensitive to perceptions of equity or inequity and will, in turn, react accordingly based upon their perceptions. The equity sensitive construct, according to the researchers, is defined as the investigation of a person's "perception of what is and what is not equity, and then uses that information to make predictions about reactions to inequity" King, et.
The study classifies people as either "benevolents, equity sensitives, or entitleds" King, et al. Thirteen separate hypotheses were evaluated in this research study. The researchers first administered tests to the participants to determine their level of equity sensitivity.
The participants were then assigned randomly to either under reward or over reward conditions. The results showed that all of the researchers' hypotheses were consistent with the equity sensitivity construct. The researchers did find that the "manipulations of outcomes was a stronger cause of dissatisfaction than was manipulation of inputs" King, et.
The researchers confirmed that there is "strong support for the equity sensitivity construct and its incorporation into equity theory to enhance its predictive power" King, et. The results of this research further help make Equity Theory germane to the workplace, allowing employers to make initial assumptions about how employees may react to potential or perceived inequities, based upon their employees' beliefs and personal norms.
Nurses work in a field where much of their motivation and reward comes from the act and feelings they get from helping others in very desperate times.
Vroom expectancy motivation theory | Employee motivation theories | YourCoach Gent
In addition, the nurses who had a higher need for control over situations experienced a higher degree of this burnout, whereas the nurses who had a higher degree of intrinsic motivation experienced lower burnout or emotional distress.
Wage Comparisons with Similar and Dissimilar Others Wage satisfaction and social comparison relationships has been the subject of several research studies over the past 30 years. Paul D Sweeney and Dean B. Sweeney and McFarlin hypothesized based on the Equity Theory that as employees compared their wages to similar others; their wage satisfaction would vary based on that social comparison.
In the first two studies, subjects were asked to compare satisfaction with others in a similar occupation within and outside of their current organization.
Expectancy Theory and the Impact on Leadership
In the third and fourth studies wage satisfaction was compared with employees who had similar and dissimilar occupations. Study 1 Two hundred and thirty-five engineers at a Midwest utility company were mailed surveys to collect salary, age, sex, marital status, tenure, and job grade. The survey also collected data from scale rated questions pertaining to satisfaction of their pay and their perception of how others are paid with similar jobs outside the organization.
Study 2 During this study researchers attempted to replicate their findings from study 1 by using a large sample of US federal government workers from the Office of Personnel Management. Study 3 During this study the construct of similarity was viewed based on similar and dissimilar occupations. The survey-based data were collected using a multistage area probability sampling procedure where each data point came from someone who was at least 18 years old and employed.
Like the first two studies the questions were scale based and represented perceptions about their wage and their relative satisfaction. Study 4 This study was researched in order to replicate the results of Study 3 and pulled data from the same University of Michigan research project while using an entirely different sample using the same 18 and older and employed criteria. The results and conclusions were the same as Study 3.
The results of all of the studies were surprising to the researchers. The most important predictor of wage satisfaction was the level of income and although comparisons to similar others did show a strong correlation, so did comparisons to dissimilar others. Defining the similarity construct as an occupation or organizational comparison did not change the strength of income being the strongest predictor of satisfaction.
5. Equity Theory - PSYCH Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence
Also, this would explain that our social comparison of the most similar others would have the greatest impact but in the case of wages there seems to be the other primary factor of income level and what that means to an employee that determines level of satisfaction.
The study was completed on the basis that equity theory indicates that workers react to and modify their work behavior based upon the speed or rate of the work of the people around them. The hypothesis under evaluation was: Data was examined for three production lines of a major automobile manufacturer.
One hundred forty-eight workers' task times for a period of six months' work was recorded and reviewed. The researchers believed that the positive correlations found between the speed of a worker and the speed of his or her co-worker were consistent with Equity Theory, as workers desired to decrease gaps between their work pace inputs and the work pace of their co-workers.
The study results were purported as important in design of assembly lines such that workstations should be arranged as to take advantage of this equity theory effect by allowing workers only to be able to see the employees who are the fastest in the plant.The Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Both classical and contemporary research supports the validity of Equity Theory and its application in the work setting. While Equity Theory is supported as fact when reviewing the actions and behaviors of those who feel they are subject to inequities, additional research into how Equity Theory can be used proactively to increase the motivation and behavior of workers is necessary.
Dishonesty in the Name of Equity InGino and Pierce conducted a research study in order to determine when it is that people act dishonestly to either help or hurt others. They had two experiments. The first was to analyze the effects of emotional reactions to inequity.
The second was to analyze how far individuals would go to help one another. The participants in this study were mostly students from Carnegie Mellon University. They were divided into groups and either did or did not receive money. They then had to grade problems completed by the individual with whom they were paired. If the solver got the problem right, he would get money. They tried to determine if individuals would be dishonest in reporting whether or not the solver actually completed the problem correctly.
They found that individuals did help when there is equity having money or not. The implications of this study suggest that managers should try to keep equity between employees, because when inequity occurs, dishonesty will also occur. The mediating effect of supervisor conflict on procedural injustice—job strain relations: The function of power distance.
Very recently, researchers Liu, Yang, and Nauta conducted a study that broadens most research on the relationships between supervisor conflict, procedural injustice and job strain.
Their study presents a more complex model of how perceived injustice influences employees' job strains than is currently available in the literature. According to the process model of conflict, Liu et.
This is often seen in the workplace and is common in the relationships held between a supervisor and an employee. The result is a strain in the equity shared between the two. Based on previous research on the Equity Theory, when employees perceive a lack of fairness at work, they react negatively toward the source of unfairness. Thus, because employees usually attribute procedural injustice to supervisors, Liu, Yang and Nauta's first goal was to investigate procedural injustice as a possible predictor of supervisor conflict, not just a cause.
Procedural injustice, as portrayed in this study, refers to perceived unfairness with respect to the procedures used to determine outcome distributions Liu et. To further examine procedural injustice as a predictor of conflict in a work setting, university employees were randomly selected and mailed survey packets including an extra survey they were to give to a co-worker to fill out. The questions on these packets centered around supervisor conflict, procedural injustice, power distance, anxiety and depression.
Once these surveys were mailed back, the data were analyzed. In the results of this study, it was found that procedural injustice could in fact be identified as a possible predictor for supervisor conflict.
Based on employee—coworker dyad data, Liu and her colleagues found that perceived procedural injustice was positively related to reported conflict with supervisors. Second, power distance moderated procedural injustice in relation to supervisor conflict, as reported by both employees and their coworkers.
Finally, supervisor conflict self-reported mediated the relations between procedural injustice and job strains i. This study adds literature to current research relative to problems in a work setting. Relationships held between supervisors and employees must have equity in order to succeed and maintain perceived justice. This study opens up many opportunities to conduct further research on conflict in the workplace, as well as ways interventions can be implemented in a work setting guided by the Equity Theory.
The Future of Equity Research Most of the research into Equity Theory thus far has been experimental in nature and concerned with interpersonal relationships. While this is important, especially to social psychologists, new insights can be gained by looking on a larger level.
By looking at Equity Theory on a broader scale, a more complete theory can evolve. Instead of focusing on just person to person and person to organization aspects, the opportunity exists to refocus on a larger scale such as how companies as a whole function in a corporate world. The people who run the companies and make the decisions run their numbers against how their competitors are doing.
Their competitors can serve as comparison others. How does the company as a whole deal with their comparison other? To resolve what is essentially an underpayment inequity, if the company is not doing well, the same rules can apply and the company can work harder and look internally to see how they can resolve the inequity. Another avenue for future research would be a cultural analysis. The opportunity is there to see what cultures are more compatible with equity theory and which, like Eastern cultures, stress equality instead.
Finding out what cultures are compatible with the theory and which are not could give us insight into better ways for us to operate and why what these cultures emphasize instead works for them. Staff members that work with the disabled are often plagued with feelings of being under-benefited Disley, Future research calls for an investigation into the equity perceptions of the staff to determine the relevant rewards and inputs, as well as who their comparison others are.
Is the staff aware of the impact their perceptions have on their peace of mind as well as how they perform at work? How much does the inequity they feel at work impact how they perform at work and does it affect the disabled that they are there to help? We can all agree that slacking off due to underpayment inequity becomes more serious when your job involves another person who is dependent on you.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Equity Theory Equity Theory is a good resource for organizations to consider when it comes to understanding social comparison amongst employees. However, as with any theory, there are strengths and weaknesses in terms of both practice and research. This concept is referred to as "social comparison".
Carrell and Dittrich, Implications for managers[ edit ] Equity theory has several implications for business managers: People measure the totals of their inputs and outcomes. This means a working mother may accept lower monetary compensation in return for more flexible working hours.
Different employees ascribe personal values to inputs and outcomes. Thus, two employees of equal experience and qualification performing the same work for the same pay may have quite different perceptions of the fairness of the deal. Employees are able to adjust for purchasing power and local market conditions. Thus a teacher from Alberta may accept lower compensation than his colleague in Toronto if his cost of living is different, while a teacher in a remote African village may accept a totally different pay structure.
Although it may be acceptable for more senior staff to receive higher compensation, there are limits to the balance of the scales of equity and employees can find excessive executive pay demotivating.
Staff perceptions of inputs and outcomes of themselves and others may be incorrect, and perceptions need to be managed effectively. An employee who believes he is overcompensated may increase his effort.
However he may also adjust the values that he ascribes to his own personal inputs. It may be that he or she internalizes a sense of superiority and actually decrease his efforts.
Criticisms and related theories[ edit ] Criticism has been directed toward both the assumptions and practical application of equity theory. Scholars have questioned the simplicity of the model, arguing that a number of demographic and psychological variables affect people's perceptions of fairness and interactions with others.
Thus, in a business setting, one might feel that his or her compensation is equitable to other employees', but one might view the entire compensation system as unfair Carrell and Dittrich, Researchers have offered numerous magnifying and competing perspectives: Equity sensitivity construct[ edit ] The Equity Sensitivity Construct proposes that individuals have different preferences for equity and thus react in different ways to perceived equity and inequity.
Preferences can be expressed on a continuum from preferences for extreme under-benefit to preferences for extreme over-benefit. Three archetypal classes are as follows: In other words, the benevolent prefers to be under-benefitted.