Cover of Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health Ambient Levels of Anthropogenic Emissions and Their Atmospheric Transformation Products .. The difference between the June value (the lowest) and the September value ( the. Transportation Contribution to Particulate Matter Pollution”, had the objective of performing a correlation analyses on particulate matter (PM) and traffic monitoring data local transportation agencies to evaluate mobile source emission contributions to ambient . monitors track the levels of criteria pollutants over time. Difference between concentrations and emissions. According to article num. 2 of Presidential Decree /88, atmospheric pollution represents any change in.
Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO2 on respiratory infection rates in children. Coughing and wheezing are the most common complication of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but the eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur.
In another report, it is suggested that the level of nitrogen oxide between 0. It is emitted from motor engines, particularly with those using petrol containing Pb tetraethyl.
Smelters and battery plants, as well as irrigation water wells and wastewaters, are other emission sources of the Pb into the environment. Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and the other organs. Retained Pb absorption through alveoli is absorbed and induces toxicity.
Pb is a powerful neurotoxicant, especially for infants and children as the high-risk groups. Mental retardation, learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors are of adverse effects of Pb in childhood. Pb may also replace calcium as a second messenger resulting in protein modification through various cellular processes including protein kinase activation or deactivation. Abdominal pain, anemia, aggression, constipation, headaches, irritability, loss of concentration and memory, reduced sensations, and sleep disorders are the most common symptoms of Pb poisoning.
Exposure to Pb is manifested with numerous problems, such as high blood pressure, infertility, digestive and renal dysfunctions, and muscle and joint pain. Other air pollutants Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.
Table 1 Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Open in a separate window As it can be easily understood, fossil fuel consumption shares the largest part of air contamination. Air pollutants can also be classified into anthropogenic and natural according to their source of emission.
From anthropogenic aspect, air contamination occurs from industrial and agricultural activities, transportation, and energy acquisition. While from natural contaminant has different sources of emission such as volcanic activities, forest fire, sea water, and so on.
Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
According to available data, the main toxic effects of exposure to air pollutants are mainly on the respiratory, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, dermatologic, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, immunologic, and reproductive systems. However, the molecular and cell toxicity may also induce a variety of cancers in the long term. Depending on the dose of inhaled pollutants, and deposition in target cells, they cause a different level of damages in the respiratory system.
In the upper respiratory tract, the first effect is irritation, especially in trachea which induces voice disturbances. Air pollution is also considered as the major environmental risk factor for some respiratory diseases such as asthma and lung cancer. Cardiovascular dysfunctions Many experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown the direct association of air pollutant exposure and cardiac-related illnesses.
On the other hand, a study on animal models suggested the close relationship between hypertension and air pollution exposure. Neuropsychiatric complications The relationship between exposure to air suspended toxic materials and nerve system has always been argued. However, it is now believed that these toxic substances have damaging effects on the nervous system.
The toxic effect of air pollutants on nerve system includes neurological complications and psychiatric disorders. Neurological impairment may cause devastating consequences, especially in infants. In contrast, psychiatric disorders will induce aggression and antisocial behaviors.
Recent studies have reported the relationship between air pollution and neurobehavioral hyperactivity, criminal activity, and age-inappropriate behaviors. The skin is a target organ for pollution in which the absorption of environmental pollutants from this organ is equivalent to the respiratory uptake. Chronic exposure to air pollutants increases the risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. In addition, there are now evidence suggesting the association between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, and some of the major blinding.
According to a report, the quality of air in Iran, especially in Tehran metropolis is very unhealthy and most of the pollution indices, specifically indices for CO and PM are above the standard and at sometimes at dangerous level. Unpublished data show that a motorcycle produces air pollution 60 times more than a standard car.
Therefore, as expected, air pollution is the main casualty of excess out of total deaths in a year. According to a recent report, SO2, NO2, and O3, respectively, have caused about additional, and cases of total mortality in Therefore, it is suggested to adopt a balance between economic development and air pollution by legislating policies to control all activities resulting in air pollution.
For example, increasing the price of fuels, planting trees around and inside the city, replacing old cars with modern ones, and increasing road taxes and car insurance may reduce the amount of air pollutants, but in order to keep the constancy or even optimization, these strategies should be continued. The most air-polluted capital cities of Asia are Delhi and Tehran.
- There was a problem providing the content you requested
Therefore, urgent and concerted actions at national and international levels are required. Some mega capital cities in the other countries like London and Tokyo have controlled their air pollutions over the years following appropriate legislations and strict controls, whereas moving the capital cities in India and Pakistan in the last century have not solved the problem of air pollution in the long term in these countries.
Therefore, moving capital city will not solve the problem of air pollution and only reduces the problem in the short term. Some recommended strategies to reduce the air pollution in Iran are summarized as the followings: Standardization of vehicle's fuel as much as possible and also finding a new source of energy for motor engines has attracted great attention.
A great part of emission comes from vehicle exhaust, especially those which use diesel and gasoline. Using other clean source of energy such as compressed natural gas CNGliquefied natural gas LNGand alcohol is of great interests. Hence, exhorting researchers and also companies in the era of interest to find a way for replacing petrol and other fossil fuels with new suitable power generation sources will be beneficial. Surely, motor vehicles will not use fossil fuel and derivatives anymore in the near future.
Indoor environments are rich sources of HCs and oxidized organic molecules, with several hundred different organic compounds known to be present in certain indoor environments Jarke et al. Indoor concentrations of gaseous NMHCs span a measured range of 0. Building materials and a host of other indoor sources appear to be responsible for many of the observed organic substances.
In view of the observed infiltration of outdoor species such as CO and NO xit appears likely that outdoor concentrations will generally establish a lower bound to indoor NMHC concentrations of a few tenths of a ppm or higher in central urban areas. Except for occasional generation by electric arcing, photocopiers, and indoor ultraviolet light sources Committee on Indoor Pollutantsany O3 indoors is present as a result of the injection or infiltration of outside air.
O3 is readily absorbed and destroyed on surfaces and, as a result, its indoor concentrations tend to be low. The National Research Council suggested an anticipated range for indoor O3 of 20— ppb, with low values in this range being much more common than high ones.
The relationship between indoor and outdoor O3 during smoggy conditions is shown in figure This figure demonstrates that indoor O3 reflects outdoor concentrations, but at a lower level, and that charcoal filtration is effective in removing O3 from indoor environments.
Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA
Similar findings in a number of geographical locations have been reviewed by Yocom Boxed areas indicate times when the building's charcoal filtering system was in operation. Adapted from Committee on Indoor more In the absence of indoor sources, SO2 concentrations are normally 0.
Within a residence in which sulfur-containing fuel such as coal, wood, or kerosene is burned, however, inadequate venting of exhaust gases can result in high local SO2 concentrations. Indoor SO2 levels of a few ppb are typical Spengler et al. As with outdoor SO2, there is little or no evidence for a significant contribution by motor vehicle emissions. A large number of people spend one or more hours a day within automobiles, buses, and other motor vehicles.
Notwithstanding this fact, information on concentrations of trace gases within motor vehicles is sparse indeed. Some data on CO within automobiles indicate that these concentrations can exceed ppm if vehicle exhaust products are allowed to intrude into the passenger compartment. Similar tendencies are suggested by the data of figure 17which show high levels of interior CO in a vehicle moving slowly or halted in dense traffic.
Additional data are needed to assess more fully the contribution of exposure in the passenger compartments of motor vehicles to total exposure burdens.
The employee's location in the Washington, D. The detector was not operated during the periods indicated by dotted lines. Personal Air Quality Monitors. A recent development in the assessment of exposure to atmospheric trace species is the introduction of personal exposure monitors.
These instruments are designed to be carried or worn throughout one's normal activities, and thus are limited in power, size, and weight.
In table 4 of their chapter in this volume, Sexton and Ryan summarize the direct personal monitoring studies that have been performed in the United States. The potential benefits from the use of such instruments is substantial, but much research is needed to develop suitable techniques for other species of interest and to miniaturize the equipment.
Personal exposure monitors have important future roles to play in health effects research. Instrument development is required, however, to improve portability, reliability, and the quantitative detection of many atmospheric species of interest not presently capable of being monitored in this way. Minor Emittants and Products Inorganic Compounds. As with outdoor air, one would like to have information on the indoor concentrations of nitric and nitrous acids, hydrogen peroxide, and perhaps other inorganic gases and aerosol constituents.
To my knowledge, however, no such measurements have ever been made in unperturbed indoor environments. A related study of interest is that of Pitts et al. The results suggested that indoor spaces with high concentrations of NO2, such as can occur near gas stoves, might also be areas in which a few ppb of HNO2 can be found.
Much more study of the indoor nitrogen cycle in the presence of strong sources is needed. Some data are available on the concentrations of major ions on indoor aerosols. Formaldehyde and to a much smaller extent, other aldehydes is one of the major indoor air quality concerns.
The current understanding of aldehyde sources is described in a recent report by the National Research Council A buildup of formaldehyde may be exacerbated in buildings that have been subjected to energy-efficiency measures intended to reduce infiltration and, thus, energy consumption.
Emission rates for formaldehyde and other organic pollutants emitted in the indoor environment are generally unknown. The indoor concentrations of formaldehyde—the only aldehyde for which any significant amount of data is available— vary greatly.
They can be negligibly small in buildings that contain few or none of its common indoor sources. Conversely, in buildings such as new, well-insulated mobile homes, concentrations may be as high as several ppm National Research Council ; Hanrahan et al.
Acetaldehyde concentrations are typically much lower Wang ; DeBortoli et al. There is no indication that formaldehyde from infiltrated outdoor air plays any significant role in establishing indoor formaldehyde concentrations unless there are no indoor sources whatever. Very limited data exist on the indoor concentrations of alcohols.
Wang detected several alcohols in a college classroom and deduced that the sources were indoor rather than outdoor. Berglund and co workers measured butanol concentrations in a school and attributed the presence of butanol to the vaporization of solvent from building materials.
In both cases, concentrations of 5—50 ppb were observed. Few studies of indoor nitro compounds have been conducted. Thompson and coworkers examined indoor and outdoor concentrations of gaseous peroxyacetyl nitrate PAN at several sites in the Los Angeles Basin.
They found PAN levels of a few ppb, always lower indoors than outdoors, and attributed them to the infiltration of outdoor air. Seifert and coworkers detected amines and nitrosamines, the former at levels as high as a few hundred ppt, the latter at levels 10 to times smaller.
It has been suggested that the nitrosamines are formed in kitchens when NO x and amines are simultaneously trapped in air-cleaning units. Since condensed-phase nitro compounds are common outdoor constituents, one would expect to find them indoors as well, perhaps at much reduced concentrations. No studies of such species indoors have been performed. The only study identifying indoor heterocyclic compounds is that of Jarke et al.
At homes in the Chicago area, they found many organic compounds, including furan, dioxane, and indole. No quantification of the concentrations was attempted, but the authors estimated their detection limit for these compounds was about 0.
The sources of the compounds were not determined but might be supposed to be either the infiltration of outdoor air or the by-products of indoor fossil fuel combustion. PAHs are readily detectable in the indoor environment, as a consequence of infiltration of outdoor air as well as from indoor combustion sources.
Given PAH vapor pressures, these data imply as well that indoor equilibrium gaseous PAH concentrations will be around 1 ppt. Such levels are similar to, or slightly smaller than, outdoor PAH concentrations. The concentration of suspended particulate matter in buildings without air filtration appears to be generally higher than it is outdoors. The chemical constituents of the indoor aerosols bear substantial resemblance to those outdoors.
The CHIEF web site includes emission factors for both point and area sources, and contains software tools to help people use the factors. One of the first activities for developing an air quality control strategy for these areas is to prepare an inventory of the emissions of interest.
Ozone, for example, is photochemically produced in the atmosphere when certain "precursor pollutants" VOC and NOx are mixed together in the presence of sunlight.
To develop an effective ozone control strategy, an air pollution control agency must compile information on the important sources plants, businesses, etc. This compilation -- the emission inventory -- identifies the source types present in an area, the amount of each pollutant emitted, the types of processes and control devices employed, and other information.
Emission inventories can serve many purposes. They are used in ambient dispersion modeling and analysis, control strategy development, and in screening sources for compliance investigations. Together with ambient monitoring data, inventory emission estimates have been used as a direct indicator of annual changes in air quality. OAQPS also provides various air pollution models and estimation tools which can be used in emission inventory development. Emissions Measurement Center The Emissions Measurement Center EMC is the EPA's focal point for planning and conducting field test programs to provide quality data in support of regulatory development, producing validated emission test methods, and providing expert technical assistance for EPA, State, and local enforcement officials and industrial representatives involved in emission testing Emissions Trends Report National emissions are estimated annually by the EPA based on statistical information about each source category, emission factor, and control efficiency.
The estimates are made for over individual source categories that include all major sources of anthropogenic emissions for the years through The National Air Pollutant Emission Trends report presents the latest estimates of national and regional emissions for criteria air pollutants.