Many factors influence body composition, including gender, age, diet, activity level, and genes. Men tend to have more muscle mass than. I. Diet modulates weight. II. Exercise modulates body composition. 1. Nutrition quality will improve how fast you lose or gain weight. 2. Exercise. When it comes to weight management, body composition is a much more With an ongoing high-protein diet, satiety is continuously higher than with showed weight loss, and there was no relationship between intake level and weight loss.
Cluster and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the respondents from their residential areas.
The relationship between diet and exercise – Steven Low
Logistic regression was used to determine the extent to which significant variables predicted high blood pressure. All other socio-economic variables did not indicate any significant association with blood pressure.
The prevalence of obesity and overweight cases combined were The risk of developing hypertension increased with age, with persons within the age categories of 30 years, 49 years and 50 years had odds ratios of 2. Nutrient intake and blood pressure monitoring must be part of the day-to-day programmes of the underground male miners.
How to cite this article: Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 3: However, in recent decades the prevalence of these diseases and their antecedent risk factors has rapidly increased in developing countries Boutayeb and Boutayeb, These changes are caused to a large extent by dietary changes in relation to socio-economic and living environmental conditions Svetkey et al.
Hypertension is a very prevalent condition in industrialized countries and has varied prevalence in developing countries. It is associated with the incidence of some diet-related non-communicable diseases such as stroke and coronary heart diseases Williams, Although the actual cause of hypertension is unknown, obesity and genetic factors predispose certain individuals to high blood pressure Michael, Dietary approaches to hypertension are under investigation.
However, certain dietary alterations lead to a modification of cholesterol levels and a reduction in cardiac risk. Less restrictive diets that contain lean meat, fruits and vegetables and have a high ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat are beneficial to the control of diet-related non-communicable diseases.
Healthy lifestyles, which help to increase an individual sense of well being, can prevent illness Pickering, These include eating a balanced diet, regular physical exercise, reducing stress, and avoiding abuse of alcohol and tobacco. Globally, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity are responsible for at leastdeaths each year. Also, the three most important personal habits that influence health include smoking, alcohol abuse and diet WHO, Lifestyle interventions have been identified to reduce the occurrence of hypertension among persons with family history of hypertension and may also reduce the risk of cardiovascular events Zellner and Sudhir, Studies have provided evidence of the beneficial effects of lifestyle intervention on blood pressure and serum lipid levels Elmer et al.
Furthermore, it has been recommended that for the treatment of high blood pressure physicians should encourage patients to make lifestyle changes their priority Frohlich, Sedentary lifestyle is strongly associated with increased mortality from coronary artery disease Yeager et al.
Exercise alone can lower blood pressureand when combined with weight reduction it reduces blood pressure substantially Miller et al. A relationship has been found between occupational stress and high blood pressure Ramsay et al. Studies also showed a reduction of 6 to 26 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a reduction of 5 to 15 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure when stress-management techniques were used.
Many people become hypertensive because of excessive alcohol intake. Besides, with a reduction of alcohol intake, 5 mmHg decline in systolic blood pressure and 3 mmHg decline in diastolic blood pressure have been reported. Moreover, when reduction of alcohol intake is combined with weight loss, blood pressure reduces by up to 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 7.
The study was cross-sectional, involving male miners in the Obuasi municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study was conducted between April and November There are about 6, people employed as underground miners in the municipality.
The municipality is noted for mining and trading as the main economic activity. Senior and junior staffs who work underground in the municipality were chosen for the study. An underground male miner officially registered as an employee of AngloGold Ashanti who is healthy, resides in AngloGold Ashanti residential facility and consented to be part of the study were included.
The selection of the subjects for the study was done using cluster method. Those of the junior staff were Anyinam quarters, Bidieso quarters, pompora quarters, Kwabrafoso quarters, wawase, quarters Sam Jonah estate, Biney Security Barracks quarters, ToyTown quarters and Security Barracks quarters. Weighting technique was also employed for the determination of the number of houses needed in each RA to be selected for the study.
This was done to avoid biases during the selection of houses in each RA for the study. Knowing the number of houses needed in each RA, house numbers were written on pieces of paper and then trough the use of lottery technique houses were randomly identified for the interview of house hold index Figures underground male miners.
Permission for the study: Furthermore, those who consented to be part of the study signed a consent form Appendix 2 and those who could not sign thumb printed to show consent. The workers have similar characteristics as those of the underground male miners at obuasi. This was done purposely to ensure the clarity of the questionnaire and the efficiency of study instruments. Data collection and measurements: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demography of the study participants age, number of years worked at the mine, marital status religion etc.
Dietary and eating habits were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and two day 24 h dietary recalls. Descriptive statistics for anthropometric variable are shown in Table 1. The height of subjects were taken with SECA microtoise to the nearest 0.
Measurements were taken with subjects standing upright, bare footed, buttocks, calf, back, head and shoulder blades touching a smooth vertical wall. Subjects were positioned such that Frankfurt plane was observed.
Subjects were made to breath-in and the measurement recorded in centimeters. Measurements of weight of respondents were taken with respondents standing upright and the eye perpendicular to the height. The BM1 as a derived quantity of weight and height was determined by dividing weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared. Skin fold thickness measurement Triceps: Subjects were made to relax their arm while the arm hangs.
The skin and sub- cutaneous tissue were grasped 1cm above the arms midpoint between the tip of the acromial process of the scapula and the olecranon process of the ulna.
The independent association between diet quality and body composition
The fold runs parallel to the long axis of the arm while measurements were taken at the posterior midline Tam et al. The anterior aspects of the upper arm skin fold were lifted directly above the centers of the cubital fossa.
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