Clownfish and Sea Anemone Partnership
An example of commensalism: cattle egrets foraging in fields among cattle or the sea anemone, and the fecal matter from the clownfish provides nutrients to. Anemones have developed a type of symbiotic relationship, known as mutualism, with two animals: porcelain crabs and anemone fish. Symbiotic Relationships: Mutualism, Commensalism & Parasitism . Finally, in the case of the sea anemone and the clownfish, both species.
The reason behind their compatibility is that they have a give-and-take relationship between them. The clownfish, because of its bright colors, attracts prey for the sea anemone to hunt and feed on.
In turn, the sea anemone feeds the clownfish with scraps or leftovers from its meals. Also, the clownfish prunes the sea anemone by eating up the dead tentacles of this polyp, and algae that settles on it. Better water circulation is given to the sea anemone when the clownfish fans its fins while swimming. The feces of the clownfish also provides as a fertilizer to the sea anemone.
Being very territorial, the clownfish drives away polyp-eating fish, thus providing protection to the sea anemone. Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other. Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource.
Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion. An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree. The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients.
Symbiotic Sea Life
Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling. Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling. An example of antagonism is Juglans nigra black walnutsecreting juglone, a substance which destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone. As the insects are stirred up, the cattle egrets following the livestock catch and feed upon them. The egrets benefit from this relationship because the livestock have helped them find their meals, while the livestock are typically unaffected by it.
Barnacles on a whale's tail taken from my kayak in Glacier Bay, Alaska do not harm the whale, but benefit the barnacles a. A type of symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits by living on or with another the 'host'but neither harms nor helps the host. Cattle stir up insects while grazing and egrets eat them seen in picture on left.
The seed is dispersed, but doesn't harm the animal. Mutualism In a symbiotic mutualism, the clownfish feeds on small invertebrates which otherwise potentially could harm the sea anemone, and the fecal matter from the clownfish provides nutrients to the sea anemone. The clownfish is additionally protected from predators by the anemone's stinging cells, to which the clownfish is immune. Alice algae took a lichen to Freddie fungus and now they live in symbiotic bliss - Wendy Carroll Upon seeing the Star of Bethlehem orchid, Charles Darwin predicted that a moth with an extra long proboscis must exist.
A hundred years later, the moth was finally "caught in the act," fulfilling Darwin's prediction. Click on the photo for a great article on the story. One of the best examples of mutualism is pollination. Flowers provide nectar as food to the pollinators such as bees, some bats, birds while the pollinators move pollen from one plant to the next so that they can make seeds for reproduction.
There is a beautiful video of pollination on the page on this website called "Nature's Weird and Wonderful" ii.
The Enigmatic Relationship Between Clownfish and Sea Anemone
Another great example of mutualism is the type of seed dispersal where an organism eats the fruit, but poops out the seed. When you click on this image, it will give link you to a video about pollination of milkweed, which is a bit more complicated and interesting. Seed dispersion can be a form of mutualism when the animal eats the seed- bearing fruit and the seed is later pooped out iii. Some organisms benefit each other AND cannot live without each other.
This type of mutualism is called obligate mutualism. The algae produces its own food and shares it with the fungus, while the fungus provides a place for the algae to grow and retains water to share with the algae. The milkweed aphids are a particular species Aphis nerii whose only habitat in the Northern US is the milkweed plant.
The only other plant Aphis nerii lives on is the oleander bush, whose habitat is in warmer climate states. In this form of mutualism, the "farmers" are the ants and the "cows" are the aphids. The milkweed aphids eat the plant and produce a sugary substance called 'honeydew' that the ants 'milk' from the aphid's anus.Anemone Killer Fish Traps - World's Weirdest
The ant benefits the aphid by protecting it from predators like ladybugs. It is a tiny parasitic wasp that lays its eggs inside the aphid. The wasp larva grows inside the aphid, eventually killing it.