User:Philbartle/Rants02 - WikiEducator
In this unit, we shall discuss various aspects of socialization. It includes the concepts, stages and types of socialization. The relationship between education and. Socialization and Education*. Socialization is an important subject in the study of the and regulate the relations between an individual and society, between an. Documents Included in this Socialization Module Since culture is learned, we should examine the learning process to see how culture is.
But they link the educational system more directly with the system of social stratification. According Davis and Moore social stratification is a mechanism for ensuring that most talented and able members of society are allocated to those positions which are functionally most important for the society. High rewards which act as incentives are attached to these positions which means that all will win through.
The education system is one important part of this process. According to Althusser, a French philosopher, as a part of the superstructure, the educational system is ultimately shaped by infrastructure. It will therefore reflect the relations of production and serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class. For the ruling class to survive and prosper, the reproduction of labour power is essential.
He argues that the reproduction of labour involves two processes. First, the reproduction of the skills necessary for an efficient labour force. Second, the reproduction of ruling class ideology and the socialisation workers in terms of it. These processes combine to reproduce a technically efficient and submissive and obedient work force. The role of education in capitalist society is the reproduction of such a work force.
Althusser argues that the reproduction of labour power requires not only reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time a reproduction of its submission to the ruling ideology.
Ideological State Apparatus transmit ruling class ideology thereby creating false class consciousness. Education not only transmits a general ruling class ideology which justifies and legitimates the capitalist system. It also reproduces the attitudes and behaviour required by the major groups in the division of labour.
Like Althusser, the American economists Bowels and Gintis argue that the major role of education in capitalist society is the reproduction of labour power.
In particular, they maintain that education contributes to the reproduction of workers with the kind of personalities, attitudes and outlooks which will fit them for their exploited status.
They argue that social relationships in schools replicate the hierarchical division of labour in their work place.
It can be stated here that education performs certain role for the society. At the same time education is also conditioned by the social structure. Society crates educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities to perform certain functions in accomplishing its end. The educational system may be viewed as a part of the total social system. It reflects and influences the social and cultural order of which it is a part. The class system, the cultural values, the power structure, the balance between individual freedom and social control, the degree of urbanisation and industrialisation all these factors exercise a profound influence on school system of any society.
Functional Relationships between Education and other Sub-Systems: What are the functional relationships between education and other sub-systems of society. Many functionalists have argued that there is functional relationship between different sub-systems.
For example there is a functional relationship between education and economic system. Skills and values learned in education are directly related to the way in which the economy and the occupational structure operate.
The Relationship between Education and Society (7040 Words)
Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by the economy. Similarly, education is also influenced by economy. Education reflects these changes in the economy. In this context Halsey and Floud argue that, the educational system is bent increasingly to the service of the labour force. This can be seen from the steady increase in the school leaving age, the increasing specialisation of educational provision and the rapid expansion of higher and vocational education.
These institutions are social system because they are interrelated. A social system reveals a balance between its parts which facilitates its operation. Occasionally it may reveal imbalance, but it tends towards equilibrium. For example, when a country changes its Constitution, the change is never confined to its political institutions. Corresponding changes take place in economic relationships, in the educational system, in the class structure and so on.
The Relationship between Education and Society ( Words)
All the social institutions would be in balance, each being adjusted to other, forming a single unified scheme. Social Origins and Orientation of Students and Teachers: Education is a social concern. It is a social process. Its objective is to develop and awaken in the child those physical, intellectual and moral states which are acquired of the individual by his society as a whole and the milieu for which he is specially destined.
It is the significant means of socialisation. The function of education is to socialise the young by imparting to them norms and values, culture and heritage, and to provide them with skills and placement. This is traditionally, the accepted role of education. In the West, for long, literacy was not considered essential for all.
It remained confined to the priests, ruling classes and to commercial class. The education imparted was literary and religious. The valuation of education was not very high. In the Indian social milieu, education has been traditionally given significant importance. Education has been given greater prominence in India than in Western or Islamic societies or in China. Eighteenth century, witnessed the total disruption of educational system.
The modern industrial society with its advance technology, division of labour, job differentiation, assumes a general standard of literacy. It cannot carry on with handful of education and mass illiteracy. The technological advancement has necessitated the re-orientation of education. The environmental effect of the education of child is now given special stress and attention.
Douglas, in The Home and the School has specially developed this aspect of child education. Likewise, children from smaller families generally have higher educational attainment, since they are also likely to receive more parental attention than children in large families. He or she is an active agent who has to learn to interpret that environment… Consequently, when considering the effects of the home on educational attainment. It is not enough to see this simply as the result of the occupation and education of the parents.
Family insecurity, for example, is not only produced by poverty but also results when professional parents with busy lives spend little time with their children. In USA, there does not exist a national system of education. It is not a Federal subject. It is left entirely to the care of the local administration.
There, therefore, exists diversity of institutions and of standards. Even within the same State, educational standards and the quality of schools varies. The American elementary and high school education is comprehensive, and in the schools are conducted commercial, vocational and college preparatory programmes. There are schools, which exclusively conduct college preparatory courses. In England, there are elementary schools for the working class, Grammar schools for middle class children, and public school education, for the children of the upper class.
This pattern has remained more or less unchanged, since long time. The Education Act ofdid not bring about any change in this differentiation. There is, however, effort being made to bring about the changes in the system, to develop comprehensive school system. Education in our country under the British Raj did not make much progress. Inliteracy did not cover more than 10 per cent of the population. Since independence much extension has been given to education and literacy. Efforts are afoot to extend education both at the primary and adult levels.
In the five decades since independence much advance has been made in education at secondary, college and university levels. Under the new pattern Ten plus Two system at the secondary and senior secondary levels, emphasis is now being laid on vocational and technical education.
In the traditional society, teacher was taken to symbolise the best in social values. He was accepted as a moral authority. But this position has now undergone a distinct change. Teacher in an educated society is not the only person who can be said to have intellectual competence and school too is not the only institution to impart education.
The normative aspect of education is not attended to. In fact it has remained neglected. The emphasis in learning is on the accumulation of knowledge or acquiring a qualification, vocational or otherwise. Equality of Educational Opportunity: The equalisation of educational opportunities is essentially linked with the notion of equality in the social system.
In a social system if all the individuals are treated as equal, they get equal opportunities for advancement.
Since education is one of the most important means of upward mobility, it is through an exposure to education one can aspire to achieve higher status, position and emoluments. But for getting education he must have equal opportunities like other members of the society. In case educational opportunities are unequally distributed, the inequalities in the social structure continue to be perpetuated, it is in this light the quality of educational opportunity has been visualised.
The need for emphasising the equality of opportunity in education arise due to number of reasons. Some of these reasons are enumerated below: Education is supposed to eliminate social and economic inequality.
The relationship between education and inequality is a result of the historical particulars of the educational system. There are two factors in this 1 the available opportunities which structure individual choices and 2 the social and economic process which structure individual choices while the above factors point out that the educational system is a product of the social structure it must be remembered that it is not a one-way process because the educational system itself and the values it stands for influences individual decisions.
The major problem with respect to the equality of educational opportunity is the perpetuation of inequalities through education. It is through a system of education in which elite control is predominant that the inequalities are perpetuated. In an elite controlled system the schools practise segregation. This segregation may be on the basis of caste, colour or class etc. In South Africa schools practise segregation on the basis of colour. Equality of educational opportunity is more talked about, than really believed.
In all modern industrially advanced countries there is the total inequality of educational opportunity. Educational opportunities for a child are determined by his family, class, neighborhood consideration.
A comprehensive school system free from these considerations is the demand all over the world. There is a move to this effect in U. But the movement is comparatively weak in Britain and France. The size of the family and the parental attitude makes a lot of difference to the educational career of a child.
The educated parents give due attention to the education of the children. The family influence determines the educational goal of the children.
Inequality of educational opportunity also occurs due to the poverty of a large section of the population and the relative affluence of small minority. The poor cannot pay the fees and their children do not find chances of continuing in schools. Children from the families that cannot provide the economic support and other perquisite, suffer badly. From this group, there is the maximum number of dropouts. Education and social status have close connection. Social class position includes income, occupation and life style.
These have impact on the upbringing of the child. Under the segregated schooling that long prevailed in the United States, officially in the South and informally elsewhere, Negroes received an inferior education. Racially segregated schools have simply been poorer schools and children in these schools are not given the same opportunity to learn to the same level as white schools.
The neighborhood environment has much to do with the education of the children. Low income families concentrate in the inner city, live in old and decaying houses.
Families with similar level of income, and similar vocation live in neighborhood. This sort of inequality is found everywhere in the West. The residential segregation is a factor that produces class structures. Neighborhood has its impact on the school, and on the peer group.
The attitude of the teacher has much to do with education of the children. The very real measurable differences between middle class and lower class children in tests, as well as the differences between white and Negro children, are to be accounted for, not by innate differences in ability, but by differences of cultural exposure and bearing opportunities. The children in rural areas studying in poorly equipped schools have to compete with the children in urban areas where there are well-equipped schools and more informative environment for getting admission to the schools for higher bearing on professional colleges.
In Indian situation educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible. They are given inferior position in the family and their education is neglected. Educational inequality is due to the system itself and also on account of conditions prevailing in society. It is multi-sided affair and is continuing both in developed and developing societies.
In many societies it finds expression in the form of public schools. Some of the societies including our own, run public schools which provide much better education than the type of education provided by State run and controlled educational institutions.
The education in the former institutions being much costly as compared with the latter and admission obviously open to only few privileged. This creates educational inequality in its own way.
SOCIALIZATION and EDUCATION
It is really strange that education aimed at social transformation reflects the structured inequalities in our social system. Educational institutions are in a sense closed systems since opportunities that elite has for excellent educational system is not available for the unfortunate masses.
Obviously this system breeds inequality of opportunities. In many cities there is a definite status hierarchy in primary education and to a large extend, the choice of a primary school determines career opportunities. Top priority is given to English medium schools sponsored by missionaries since they offer the best education.
Next in the hierarchy are non-English medium schools run by religious organisations and charitable trusts. At the bottom of the hierarchy are the schools run by the Government. Naturally the choice of English medium schools is the forerunner for lucrative and prestigious careers for a particular segment of society. We have at present a stratified society and a stratified pattern of schooling and they compete each other. Dual system of education has to be done away with through legislation and thereby evolve a common pattern of schooling to build a strong and unified democratic system in India.
Educational privileges must reach down to the poor and particularly it should benefit members of the Scheduled Castes. Rapid expansion of education among women is achieved although they are still at a disadvantage compared to men.
To some extent education has proved to be a source of social mobility for the depressed groups. Education is a double-edged instrument which can eliminate the effects of socio-economic inequalities but it can also introduce a new kind of inequality.
Education can influence the process of social change among the weaker sections of society. Persistent and planned efforts by the Government and voluntary agencies will go a long way toward elimination of educational inequalities. Education as Medium of Cultural Reproduction, Indoctrination: The enduring function of education is the cultural reproduction.
It has been recognised to be its main role. It is by education that the newborn is initiated in the social ways. It transmits culture to him. At the early stages the aim is to introduce the child to the normative order of his group. In the traditional society kinship group worked for the child to this end. In complex modern industrial society of the West, this work is undertaken by specialized agencies such as school. In traditional society, cultural reproduction may take place by oral teaching of heritage and culture; history and legend, and in a practical way by participating in the celebration of festivals.
One may at a successive stage be introduced to culture through books. Yet one may not be in a position to appreciate it.
It is only after one has been initiated and motivated that one gets cultivated in the cultural ways. As indicated above it is a lifelong educational process. The movies, radio, record industry, and the television are strong instruments to impart education. Their appeal is direct.
But these are not bound to any normative standard. Their basic standard is the marketability. The cultivated morality is challenged; established values are disregarded; mockery is made of humility and decency. With the disregarding of the traditional values, the growing children find themselves like the waves in the boundless sea, and the older feel to have been left high and dry. Anthropologists sometimes use the terms enculturation and acculturation.
Others have to do with safety coming to school and going home. Dressing for snow or rain before returning home is included. It is increasing, whether we agree it should or not. Anyone who has had young men in the back of the class — full of their hormones and a desire to be macho, feet up, leaning back, arms folded across their chests — may well agree.
But what about other topics? Is school a place to teach values, beliefs and social graces or other aesthetics? I think the answer would be yes, and if so we need to set up a collaboration page on which we can all contribute. Ageism, Sexism, Racism —— October 16 What is the role of education in the struggle against prejudice, bigotry and discrimination?
"The Relationship Between Education adn Socialization Input and Social " by Joanne Marie Higgins
That means our bodies vary over time, and we are products of the genetic contributions of our parents and their predecessors. There are three biological characteristics that everybody has, and they each have social consequences — how we treat one another — our age, our sex, and our inherited physical characteristics.
Biologically the characteristics are far less distinct. Socially, we think of only two genders, masculine and feminine. Biologically although we use two words, male and female, there is a range of sexes. Our population has far more than two sexes. We differ biologically in age very little from day to day, yet we use arbitrary calendar dates to make important distinctions between infants, children, adults and seniors.
Socially, we think of races as distinct categories, yet we use variables that are inconsistent, are contradictory, and are ranges without boundaries, to create those arbitrary racial categories. Biologically, there is no such thing as race. They have to be socialised to become prejudiced. To counteract that we need to use our educational institutions to teach values of acceptance, tolerance, flexibility and fairness.
These need to be designed for the abilities and knowledge of the students, which are usually correlated with their ages. A simpler approach, one of acceptance of all of us including our selves as valuable no matter what we look like, might be more appropriate at elementary level.
There is a wide range of approaches between those two. It is important, however, that teachers are aware of the arbitrariness and superficiality of racist, sexist and ageist ideas, and that they are not based on scientific including biological facts.
I had a secondary school biology teacher who expressed his opinion that Hitler was right. Our whole educational system, orthodox and non orthodox, is a major tool for preventing and mitigating it.
Culture is not static, and if we try to preserve it, we pickle it; kill it. Culture is a living organic entity, and must grow and change to live. What we are doing, then is helping to make it stronger by adapting to the evolving world social environment. Most obviously it should be included in social studies courses. Less obviously it should be included in science courses such as biology and zoology.
Debunking the notion that there are distinct categories of race, sex and age is the responsibility of the biological sciences. A wide range of other subjects can easily have appropriate places for adding the topic. Taking the "Gardening"  approach to education, where "the taught" should be considered before "what is taught," should encourage us to consider the needs of societies and communities when designing and presenting educational resources. The method also works for learning a written language.
True, we lose some of our language learning abilities as we get older, especially if we do not exercise them, but it is our methods, not our natural abilities, that are in focus here.
Oh we did learn grammar, but we did so by learning what felt right, not what the regulations were. I later used it for training community workers to learn a language if they were assigned to a community where they spoke a different language.
The method is to pretend that you are a three year old, select only words and phrases that are useful in your daily life Please pass the salt and train your friends and colleagues as informants to repeat the term after you you must not repeat it after them.