McCarthyism | History & Facts | az-links.info
McCarthyism: McCarthyism refers to the midth-century attempts by Sen. Joseph McCarthy to expose supposed communist infiltration of the United States government. What is McCarthyism? McCarthyism is part of the Red Scare period . Cold War. In 20th-century international relations: The Chinese civil war. “Dissent”. the Truman Administration's handling of the intensifying Cold War and were “ 81 loyalty risks” in the Department of State, and proceeded to describe each case .3 . Relations Committee report accused McCarthy of twisting, misrepresenting. As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States intensified in the as U.S. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, investigated allegations of subversive .
Pearson - Prentice Hall AHON 09
At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services.What is McCarthyism? And how did it happen? - Ellen Schrecker
For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists.
Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals. Smith Act trials of communist party leaders Efforts to protect the United States from the perceived threat of Communist subversion were particularly enabled by several federal laws.
Joseph McCarthy - HISTORY
The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of made it a criminal offense for anyone to "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the Hundreds of Communists and others were prosecuted under this law between and Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. The defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and given prison sentences. Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false.
However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment.
It required the registration of Communist organizations with the U. Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible Communist-action and Communist-front organizations so they could be required to register.
Due to numerous hearings, delays and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in and This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country. The Communist Control Act of was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate.
Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphreythe law was an extension of the Internal Security Act ofand sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies.
The Act was successfully applied only twice: The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights. Byseveral states had enacted statutes against criminal anarchycriminal syndicalism and sedition, banned from public employment or even from receiving public aid Communists and "subversives," asked for loyalty oaths from public servants, and severily restricted or even banned the Communist party; in addition, six states, among them California  see California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities had equivalents to the HUAC.
InJoseph McCarthy, who had been elected to the U. Senate inmade a speech in WheelingWest Virginiain which he stated that the U. The accusations triggered investigations and kept McCarthy and his search for communist subversion within the U. When and how did McCarthyism end? Have you left no sense of decency?
The public turned against McCarthy, and the Senate censured him. What were the results of McCarthyism? Nonetheless, his accusations resulted in some people losing their jobs and others facing popular condemnation. Hysteria and Growing Conservatism Public concerns about communism were heightened by international events. Inthe Soviet Union successfully tested a nuclear bomb and communist forces led by Mao Zedong took control of China.
The following year saw the start of the Korean Warwhich engaged U.
The advances of communism around the world convinced many U. Figures such as McCarthy and Hoover fanned the flames of fear by wildly exaggerating that possibility. As the Red Scare intensified, its political climate turned increasingly conservative. Elected officials from both major parties sought to portray themselves as staunch anticommunists, and few people dared to criticize the questionable tactics used to persecute suspected radicals.
Membership in leftist groups dropped as it became clear that such associations could lead to serious consequences, and dissenting voices from the left side of the political spectrum fell silent on a range of important issues. In judicial affairs, for example, support for free speech and other civil liberties eroded significantly. This trend was symbolized by the U. Supreme Court ruling in Dennis v.