Cricketnext: Get INDIA PAKISTAN CRICKET Cricket Series Latest News Dec 25, Current Situation Doesn't Allow Cricketing Ties With Pak: Shukla. The India–Pakistan cricket rivalry is one of the most extreme and intensified sports rivalries in the world. The arch-rival relations between the two nations, resulting from the extensive India-Pakistan cricket matches are some of the most watched television broadcasts in both countries. The Cricket World Cup semi-final. Over the past decade, the relationship between India and Pakistan has included periods of outright belligerence as well as moments of.
India-Pakistan bilateral series: Ball is in BCCI’s court, says PCB chief Najam Sethi
Result of this match was in the form of new initiation of peace talks between the two old rivals. In a goodwill gesture ahead of this cricket match, Pakistani government also freed an Indian national, Gopal Das, who has been languishing in a Pakistani prison for 27 years as an alleged spy March It shows that a game can change the fate of nation and its people.
Cricket can be used for ushering diplomatic relations and media can be an effective tool in this and political leader too if desirous can enhance the relations between both the nuclear powers of Asia i.
Cricket diplomacy consists of using the game of cricket as a political tool to enhance or worsen the diplomatic relations between two cricket playing nations. The cricket rivalry between the national cricket teams of India and Pakistan is one of the most intense sports rivalries in the world. After independence inboth nations laid foundations for the emergence of an intense sporting rivalry between the two nations who had erstwhile shared a common cricketing heritage.
People feel that Cricket diplomacy is a positive move, which made both authorities to visit the opposite nation and enhance the relationship between the two nuclear powers of Asia.
India–Pakistan cricket rivalry - Wikipedia
Cricket matches have in the past used as meeting opportunities and for discussions or icebreakers on the sidelines. Sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations.
Experts suggest that sports diplomacy may transcend cultural differences and bring people together. In a statement9 on 18 July at Islamabad, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari referred to the resumption of cricketing ties with India as a formidable confidence building measure and a way forward to encouraging people-to-people contact. Undoubtedly, such inputs suggest it would add to the positive atmosphere which has been witnessed by the two countries after resumption of the bilateral dialogue.
Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani also stated10 that World Cup semifinal match between India and Pakistan in Mohali proved to be a catalyst for improving ties between the two countries and that it had brought the two governments and two nations closer. However, sports and politics have had both positive and negative implications over history. Nationalistic fervor are sometimes linked to victory or loss on sports fields. In case of India and Pakistan, cricket has frequently been the victim of poor relations between these neighbors with tours blocked for years because of bad-blood; nevertheless, it has also been used to build trust and confidence when ties are improving.
Cricket diplomacy can play great role in enhancing bilateral relations of India and Pakistan but with the affirmative media presentation [ 5 ].
Cricket as an element for improving indo-pak relations Cricket has been an important element in the process of improving relations between India and Pakistan; and improvements have certainly been needed.
Politics and sports are in a relatively long line of treatises that assert that it is naive and unrealistic to view the sport as separate and above social, economic, and more specifically, political activity. Sports are linked to political socialization, formation of the political culture and development of national identity [ 6 ].
The more serious sport is to citizens, the more likely a government will use sport as a vehicle of policy and control.
Sport is an essential instrument serving the national and political integration of a country. Rajdeep Sardesai, wrote in his blog13 that Indo-Pak cricket could be compared with the diplomatic relations between the two countries and believes that it suffers from acute schizophrenia and is in a state of dilemma. InPakistani crowd were praising Indian Bowler, Balaji etc. Rajdeep believes that there is a similarity between the two for their unpredictable nature.
India-Pakistan cricket series not happening in near future, says ex-PCB chairman
The result of the visit of Pakistani president Pervez Mushraff, in to India to watch a cricket match between India and Pakistan which effectively turned into the summit and the both countries agreed to open up the militarized frontier dividing the disputed Kashmir region.
Cricket has a long history as a platform for diplomacy and public diplomacy between India and Pakistan. Rockower [ 7 ] supports this by saying that the highlevel cricket diplomacy is helpful and beneficial for taking diplomacy wickets, real people-to-people cricket diplomacy would do far more to lower the levels of hostility between the two sides.
Sports journalism Sports journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topic and events. Sports journalism is an essential element of any news media organization. There is a socio-political significance of sports journalism. As the example of cricket the stories related to it transcends the game spirit and take on socio-political significance by connecting the people of more than two countries in the common thread of entertainment and enhancing the political relations.
Journalism is mainly concerned with the reporting of events and forming the emotional attachment to events by spreading the magic of words. Sports representation by media Representations of sports in the media are key sites for political and social struggles around race and nation.
Sport is often and appropriately, analyzed as being representative of broader social relations, it is an important site in its own right for the production, reproduction and transformation of social relations. Social learning involves socialization and enduring effects on the viewer. Viewers may be more likely to internalize a media message if they think it is sponsored by someone they respect. A sponsor effect would enhance whatever message is being conveyed.
The media have an impact on the attitude and behaviour of people and media helps society to bring at the peace situation [ 9 ]. Role of media in diplomacy Today media, which is found in various forms like television, radio, magazines, newspaper, and now on the information superhighway, can be said to have the power to inform the public about the truth. The media has shaped the way society views itself and the thinks about politics, economy, religion etc.
Media affects the perception of people about their leaders, shaping or formulation of policies of the country and it can even enhance or worsen the situation between two countries. Issues are raised and projected through the salience assigned to them and how an issue is portrayed affects the way audiences look at it. Media promotes what it believes is easiest for the public to accept.
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Public opinion is formed through media propaganda [ 10 ]. Propaganda unconsciously causes the public to act in ways they may not have, had they not been exposed. After studying the media influence on public opinion during the presidential elections in the US, Mc Coombs and Shaw, suggested this theory in highlighting that media are not, according to this approach, crude agents of propaganda.
They organize public understanding. Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media- the ability to tell us what issues are important. Every media organization sets an agenda to report and make the vote of people for a particular issue.
Print media It is one of the oldest and most basic forms of mass communication. Print media are the earliest form of modern mass media in India. It includes newspapers, weeklies, magazines, monthlies and other forms of printed journals. The contribution of print media is providing information and transfer of knowledge is remarkable.
Even after the advent of electronic media, the print media has not lost its charm or relevance [ 11 ]. Print media have the advantage of making a longer impact on the minds of the readers, with more in- depth reporting and analysis [ 12 ]. The Indian press has always enjoyed an exalted position and has been seen as a watchdog of the nation and its institution and same is the case with neighbouring country Pakistan.
This is an achievement despite its limited reach and spread. There are only about 57 million copies of newspapers of all periodicity, for the population of million. In other words there is only one newspaper for every 15 persons Newspapers help in shaping public opinion and influence decision making. Credibility is the central theme of media writing. So the journalists and editors also realize their responsibility and the need to be fair and just, in informing honestly and earnestly, because their readers comprise a large amorphous and heterogeneous audience [ 13 ].
Mass media can produce a change not only in attitudes but also in behavior and maintains a well designed media campaign aimed specifically at influencing behavior can play a crucial role by creating a positive social environment conducive to behavioral change. For example both India and Pakistan media presenting the opposite team in positive frame can affect the behaviour and attitude of people in two nations.
Objectives Keeping in consideration the area under study, following objectives have been framed for the study: The purpose and significance of the study The study aims to analyze the print media portrayal of cricket between India and Pakistan and how it can be used to shape the public and political agenda. The objective of the study is to examine the role of newspapers in bilateral relations in the perspective of cricket.
The aim behind this investigation is to draw the conclusions from the media presentation of the matches before the audience. Research will try to find out that whether print media is playing a significant role while presenting the content regarding the cricket diplomacy between India and Pakistan or the presentation of media is negative?
After studying the presentation and importance given by the print media of both the countries, it will be further analyzed that is there any role of media in enhancing or worsening the relations between nations? It will provide the path for the full fledged research on the topic to explore the significance of cricket diplomacy and media presentation.
Methodology To achieve the objectives of this research study, following methodology was applied and an attempt was made to analyze the sample in a qualitative and quantitative manner. For this purpose, content analysis was used to check the coverage in terms of the variables of frequency, perspectives and other aspects and framing also formed an important tool in this study as these are more suited for this kind of research and assessment as the results defined the objectives set for this study.
Content analysis Content Analysis or textual analysis is a method in the social sciences for studying the content of any media message.
Identify the different purposes that Content analysis is used for including determining the trends in portrayals in media texts, policies and aims of the news producers, assessing the representation of particular issues, drawing inferences about media effects while comparing the media content with the real world. Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of chosen variables or codes, then make inferences about messages within the texts, the writer sthe audience and even the culture and time of which theses are a part.
Framing Is the social construction of a social reality by mass media sources or specific political or social movements or organizations? Framing is a process of constructing or deconstructing an issue or event using different elements and media texts. A frame defines the packaging of an element of rhetoric in such a way as to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage others. Framing may be of two types; positive or negative and due to the advancement of the world neutral framing is also included.
Media frames are defined as patterns of representation and interpretations of symbols and themes that organize the discourse. They enable reports to sort and pack the information effectively for their audiences.
In media as a process through which some aspects of reality are chosen and become more significant in the text. In the post period, politics became a direct factor in the holding of cricketing events.
India has suspended cricketing ties with Pakistan several times following terrorist attacks or other hostilities. The resumption of cricketing ties in came with the emergence of heads of government in both India and Pakistan who were not directly connected with the war and coincided with their formal initiatives to normalize bilateral relations.
Shortly after a period of belligerency during the Operation Brasstacks war gamesPakistani president Zia-ul-Haq was invited to watch the India-Pakistan test match being played in the Indian city of Jaipur.
This form of cricket diplomacy has occurred several times afterwards as well. Pakistan toured India inbut an Indian tour of Pakistan in was cancelled mid-way due to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
In the late s and for most of the s, India and Pakistan squared-off on neutral venues such as Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates and in TorontoCanadawhere large audiences of expatriates regularly watched them play. The series between the teams in Canada in the s and early s were officially known as the "Friendship Cup". Sharjah even though a neutral venue was considered as the "back yard of Pakistan" given the close proximity and the massive support the team generated.
Prime Minister Vajpayee's peace initiative of led to India touring Pakistan after a gap of almost 15 years. Subsequent exchange tours were held in and before the Mumbai attacks led to the suspension of India's planned tour of Pakistan in and all future engagements in Pakistan.