The Battle of Lexington and Concord: The American Revolutionary War - az-links.info
The Battle of Lexington and Concord: The American Revolutionary War The battle then followed at Lexington, as a result of a lone gunshot that went off. Lexington and Concord: The Shot Heard 'Round the World Result. American Victory. Forces Engaged. 5, BATTLE MAP | The Revolutionary War Trust's ( formerly Campaign ) map of the Battle of Lexington. . Related Battles. Ready to fight at a moment's notice, minutemen began fighting early in the American Revolution. Their efforts at Lexington and Concord inspired many patriots to.
Map of the British route to Concord: This engagement was the first encounter of the Revolutionary War. General Gage commanded the British garrison in Boston. A Provincial Congress, determined on independence for the American colonies, was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts, outside Boston, and the New England militia was drilling for war. Battle of Lexington and Concord 19th April American Revolutionary War Acting on orders from the British Government in London, General Gage decided to send a force to seize the weapons and ammunition held by the Congress in the armoury at Concord, some 15 miles from Boston.
Lieutenant-Colonel Smith was dispatched with the grenadier and light infantry companies from each of the regiments in the garrison. Boston was sealed overnight to prevent word being passed of the departure of the force, which was rowed across the harbour late on the night of 18th April to Charles River.
Battles of Lexington and Concord - HISTORY
The troops landed and began the march, but the sound of bells ringing showed that the countryside had been alerted.
Pitcairn entered Lexington to find a body of militia drawn up on the village green. Shots were fired in which 18 Americans were hit and the militia dispersed. The troops marched on to Concord where the British destroyed such supplies as had not been removed. To this day, no one knows which side fired first. Several British volleys were subsequently unleashed before order could be restored. When the smoke cleared, eight militiamen lay dead and nine were wounded, while only one Redcoat was injured.
The British then continued into Concord to search for arms, not realizing that the vast majority had already been relocated. They decided to burn what little they found, and the fire got slightly out of control. Hundreds of militiamen occupying the high ground outside of Concord incorrectly thought the whole town would be torched.
The British fired first but fell back when the colonists returned the volley. After searching Concord for about four hours, the British prepared to return to Boston, located 18 miles away.
At first, the militiamen simply followed the British column. Fighting started again soon after, however, with the militiamen firing at the British from behind trees, stone walls, houses and sheds.
Before long, British troops were abandoning weapons, clothing and equipment in order to retreat faster. One wounded man, Prince Estabrookwas a black slave who was serving in the militia. They fired in different directions and prepared to enter private homes.
Colonel Smith, who was just arriving with the remainder of the regulars, heard the musket fire and rode forward from the grenadier column to see the action. He quickly found a drummer and ordered him to beat assembly.
The grenadiers arrived shortly thereafter, and once order was restored among the soldiers, the light infantry were permitted to fire a victory volley, after which the column was reformed and marched on toward Concord. They received reports of firing at Lexington, and were not sure whether to wait until they could be reinforced by troops from towns nearby, or to stay and defend the town, or to move east and greet the British Army from superior terrain.
A column of militia marched down the road toward Lexington to meet the British, traveling about 1. Caution prevailed, and Colonel James Barrett withdrew from the town of Concord and led the men across the North Bridge to a hill about a mile north of town, where they could continue to watch the troop movements of the British and the activities in the center of town. This step proved fortuitous, as the ranks of the militia continued to grow as minuteman companies arriving from the western towns joined them there.
Smith divided them to carry out Gage's orders. The 10th Regiment's company of grenadiers secured South Bridge under Captain Mundy Pole, while seven companies of light infantry under Captain Parsons, numbering aboutsecured the North Bridge, where they were visible across the cleared fields to the assembling militia companies.
Captain Parsons took four companies from the 5th, 23rd, 38th and 52nd Regiments up the road 2 miles 3. These companies, which were under the relatively inexperienced command of Captain Walter Laurie, were aware that they were significantly outnumbered by the plus militiamen.
The concerned Captain Laurie sent a messenger to Lt. When they arrived at Ephraim Jones's tavern, by the jail on the South Bridge road, they found the door barred shut, and Jones refused them entry.
According to reports provided by local Loyalists, Pitcairn knew cannon had been buried on the property. Jones was ordered at gunpoint to show where the guns were buried.
These turned out to be three massive pieces, firing pound shot, that were much too heavy to use defensively, but very effective against fortifications, with sufficient range to bombard the city of Boston from other parts of nearby mainland.
They also burned some gun carriages found in the village meetinghouse, and when the fire spread to the meetinghouse itself, local resident Martha Moulton persuaded the soldiers to help in a bucket brigade to save the building. Of the damage done, only that done to the cannon was significant. All of the shot and much of the food was recovered after the British left. During the search, the regulars were generally scrupulous in their treatment of the locals, including paying for food and drink consumed.
This excessive politeness was used to advantage by the locals, who were able to misdirect searches from several smaller caches of militia supplies.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
The troops sent there did not find any supplies of consequence. As the militia advanced, the two British companies from the 4th and 10th Regiments that held the position near the road retreated to the bridge and yielded the hill to Barrett's men. Barrett ordered the Massachusetts men to form one long line two abreast on the highway leading down to the bridge, and then he called for another consultation.
While overlooking North Bridge from the top of the hill, Barrett, Lt. John Robinson of Westford  and the other Captains discussed possible courses of action. Captain Isaac Davis of Acton, whose troops had arrived late, declared his willingness to defend a town not their own by saying, "I'm not afraid to go, and I haven't a man that's afraid to go.
Laurie ordered the British companies guarding the bridge to retreat across it. One officer then tried to pull up the loose planks of the bridge to impede the colonial advance, but Major Buttrick began to yell at the regulars to stop harming the bridge.
The Minutemen and militia from Concord, Acton and a handful of Westford Minutemen, advanced in column formation, two by two, led by Major Buttrick, Lt.
Robinson,  then Capt. Davis,  on the light infantry, keeping to the road, since it was surrounded by the spring floodwaters of the Concord River. Since his summons for help had not produced any results, he ordered his men to form positions for "street firing" behind the bridge in a column running perpendicular to the river.
This formation was appropriate for sending a large volume of fire into a narrow alley between the buildings of a city, but not for an open path behind a bridge. Confusion reigned as regulars retreating over the bridge tried to form up in the street-firing position of the other troops.