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This also brings cultural awareness and intercultural dialogue into the workplace. These relationships tend to lead to success within the organization and increased job satisfaction. However, when paired with majority mentees, their perceived worth automatically increases due solely to the majority status of their mentees. Minority mentors tend to impart emotional benefits onto their mentees.
While mentoring typically involves a more experienced, typically older employee or leader providing guidance to a younger employee, the opposite approach can also be used. In the s, with the rise of digital innovations, Internet applications and social mediain some cases, new, young employees are more familiar with these technologies than senior employees in the organizations.
The younger generations can help the older generations to expand and grow towards current trends. Everyone has something to bring to the table, this creates a "two way street" within companies where younger employees can see the larger picture, and senior employees can learn from young employees.
Employees must have a certain set of skills in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. Mentoring is a great approach to help employees get organized, and give them access to an expert that can give feedback, and help answer questions that they may not know where to find answers to. Although mentorship can be important for an individual's career advancement, in the United States it historically has been most apparent in relation to the advancement of women and minorities in the workplace.
Until recent decades, American men in dominant ethnic groups gained most of the benefits of mentorship without consciously identifying it as an advancement strategy.
American women and minorities, in contrast, more pointedly identified and pursued mentorship in the second half of the twentieth century as they sought to achieve the professional success they had long been denied. These publications noted the many specific benefits provided by mentorship, which included insider information, education, guidance, moral support, inspiration, sponsorship, an example to follow, protection, promotion, the ability to "bypass the hierarchy," the projection of the superior's "reflected power," access to otherwise invisible opportunities, and tutelage in corporate politics.
A Harvard Business Review survey of 1, top executives published infor example, showed that most had been mentored or sponsored and that those who received such assistance reported higher income, a better education, a quicker path to achievement, and more job satisfaction than those who did not.
In Edgar Schein described multiple roles for successful mentors. Matching individual and organizational needs He said that some of these roles require the teacher to be in a position of power such as "opener of doors, protector, sponsor and leader.
A manager can mentor their own staff, but more likely will mentor staff in other parts of their organisation, staff in special programs such as graduate and leadership programsstaff in other organisations or members of professional associations.
Mentoring covers a range of roles. Articulating these roles is useful not only for understanding what role you play, but also for writing job applications. Demonstrating how you go about mentoring needs a language of behaviours. Two of Schein's students, Davis and Garrison, undertook to study successful leaders of both genders and at least two races.
Their research presented evidence for the roles of: Mosaic mentoring is based on the concept that almost everyone can perform one or another function well for someone else — and also can learn along one of these lines from someone else.
The model is seen as useful for people who are "non-traditional" in a traditional setting, such as people of color and women in a traditionally white male organization.
The idea has been well received in medical education literature. Corporate mentoring programs are used by mid-size to large organizations to further the development and retention of employees.
Mentoring programs may be formal or informal and serve a variety of specific objectives including acclimation of new employees, skills development, employee retention and diversity enhancement. Formal programs[ edit ] Formal mentoring programs offer employees the opportunity to participate in an organized mentoring program. Mentoring profiles are completed as written forms on paper or computer or filled out via an online form as part of an online mentoring system.
Informal mentoring takes places in organizations that develop a culture of mentoring but do not have formal mentoring in place. These companies may provide some tools and resources and encourage managers to accept mentoring requests from more junior members of the organization.
Fortune companies are also implementing formal mentoring programs on a global scale. Cardinal Health has had an enterprise-wide formal mentoring initiative in place since The initiative encompasses nine formal mentoring programs, some enterprise-wide and some limited to specific business segments and functions.
Goals vary by program, with some focused on employees facing specific challenges or career milestones and others enabling more open-ended learning and development. It has been claimed that new employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job than those who do not receive mentorship. For example, the mentor gets to show leadership by giving back and perhaps being refreshed about their own work.
The organization receives an employee that is being gradually introduced and shaped by the organization's culture and operation because they have been under the mentorship of an experienced member. The person being mentored networks, becomes integrated easier in an organization, gets experience and advice along the way. Bullis describes the mentoring process in the forms of phase models. Initially, the "mentee proves himself or herself worthy of the mentor's time and energy".
Then cultivation occurs which includes the actual "coaching Next, under the phase of separation, "the mentee experiences more autonomy". Ultimately, there is more of equality in the relationship, termed by Bullis as Redefinition.
These programs tend to be smaller than more general mentoring programs and mentees must be selected based on a list of eligibility criteria to participate.
Another method of high-potential mentoring is to place the employee in a series of jobs in disparate areas of an organization e. The matching committee reviews the mentors' profiles and the coaching goals sought out by the mentees and makes matches based on areas for development, mentor strengths, overall experience, skill set, location and objectives. Matching through self-match technology Mentoring technology, typically based on computer software, can be used to facilitate matches allowing mentees to search and select a mentor based on their own development and coaching needs and interests.
This mentee-driven methodology increases the speed in which matches are created and reduces the amount of administrative time required to manage the program. Speed mentoring Speed mentoring follows some of the procedures of speed dating. Mentors and mentees are introduced to each other in short sessions, allowing each person to meet multiple potential matches in a very short timeframe. Speed mentoring occur as a one-time event in order for people "to meet potential mentors to see if there is a fit for a longer term engagement.
Peer mentoring Mentoring in education involves a relationship between two people where the mentor plays a supportive and advisory role for the student, the mentee. This relationship promotes "the development and growth of the latter's skills and knowledge through the former's experience. There are also peer mentoring programs designed specifically to bring under-represented populations into science and engineering.
Graduate university alumni are engaging with current students in career mentorship through interview questions and answers. The students with the best answers receive professional recommendations from industry experts build a more credible CV.
Resiliency[ edit ] A specific focus of youth mentoring that addresses the issues that cause students to underachieve in education while simultaneously preparing them to deal with future difficult circumstances that can affect their lives and alter their success is the fostering of resiliency. Resilience is "the ability to withstand and rebound from disruptive life challenges" and has been found to be a very useful method when working with students of low socioeconomic backgrounds who often encounter crises or challenges and suffer specific traumas.
Resiliency does not provide a solution to the struggles and trauma that these students are experiencing, but instead focuses on giving them the tools to adapt to these situations and respond to them in a way that avoids a negative outcome and enables them to emerge stronger learn from it.Devon Franklin Shares REAL Relationship Advice
Protective factors and risk factors[ edit ] Protective factors "modify or transform responses to adverse events so that [students] avoid negative outcomes" and encourage the development of resiliency, while risk factors are circumstances that perpetuate these poor outcomes and prevent that student from acquiring resilience as a tool.
Examples of these protective factors identified by Reis, Colbert and Hebert in their three-year study of economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students include having "supportive adults, friendships with other achieving students, the opportunity to take honors and advanced classes, participation in multiple extracurricular activities both after school and during the summer, the development of a strong belief in the self, and ways to cope with the negative aspects of their school, urban and family environment.
In these environments, students are often exposed to coercive interactions, so positive, personal and harmonious interchanges between the student and some supportive figure can help develop adaptive qualities. Some of the components that facilitate this development of resilience when combined with the existence of a strong adult-student relationship include after school programs, more challenging classes, peer support programs, summer programs and gifted programs.
The discussions between the instructional coach and teacher are built upon mutual respect and a trusting relationship through confidentiality. Instructional coaches can model lessons and instructional strategies in the teachers' classroom to show examples and have teachers feel more confident in using these strategies.
Coaches doing observations and collecting data to debrief with teachers helps paint a picture for teacher improvement. This, however, could not be viewed as solely "instructional coaching" in isolation of other factors. Ninety-one percent of teachers coached regularly stated that coaches helped them understand and use new teaching strategies. Seventy-nine percent of teachers coached regularly said that their coach played a significant role in improving their classroom instruction and practice.
Teachers who were regularly coached one-on-one reported that: They made significant changes in their instructional practice. Their students were more engaged in the classroom and enthusiastic about learning. Attendance increased dramatically in their classes. Administrative support[ edit ] There should also be support from administration around the instructional coaching to align the work of the coach and teacher with the school's mission or vision. Knight explains that the principal and the instructional coach need to be aligned in their goals for the coaching occurring.
Knight shares how giving opinions and telling a teacher how to improve stops the learning for the teacher and instead creates a barrier between the coach and teacher and makes the teacher expect hand-holding.
Instead, the data needs to tell a story for the teacher to determine moves to try to improve. This allows ownership for the teacher as well as understanding of their work in conjunction with the work. Another way to build this trust is through confidentiality.
BBC One - The Apprentice - The Relationship Guru by Team Tenacity
By keeping all conversations confidential and sticking to that, the coachee knows that your word is good. In addition to relationship building, it is important to let the coachee feel comfortable talking to you about anything—there may need to be the time when a crisis they are facing trumps conversation about the lesson. Content and pedagogical knowledge[ edit ] According to Nelson and Sassi, "knowledge of pedagogical process and content knowledge must be fused" in both understanding teaching and observing teaching.
Knowledge that coaches need to be effective span just content and pedagogical knowledge. Aguilar uses the ladder of inference to allow coaches to evaluate their own thoughts, and ultimately use this ladder to help principals and teachers evaluate their own beliefs before jumping to assumptions. Aguilar states that her "list of beliefs has changed over the years. You can change yours, too.
The Apprentice 2014, episode 6, review: 'a sleazy boardgame'
The point is to be mindful of the beliefs from which we're working and to notice the effect of working from those beliefs. Reverse mentoring[ edit ] In the reverse mentoring situation, the mentee has less overall experience typically as a result of age than the mentor who is typically olderbut the mentee has more knowledge in a particular area, and as such, reverses the typical constellation. Examples are when young internet or mobile savvy millennial generation teens train executives in using their high end smartphones.
They in turn sometimes offer insight in business processes. This is different from being an apprentice ; a business mentor provides guidance to a business owner or an entrepreneur on the entrepreneur's business . The Vedas themselves prescribe for a young brahmachari to be sent to a Gurukul where the Guru referred to also as acharya teaches the pupil the Vedas and Vedangas.
The pupil is also taught the Prayoga to perform yajnas.
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- The Apprentice 2014, episode 6, review: 'a sleazy boardgame'
The term of stay varies Manu Smriti says the term may be 12 years, 36 years or 48 years. After the stay at the Gurukul the brahmachari returns home after performing a ceremony called samavartana. Shaktipat The guru passes his knowledge to his disciples by virtue of the fact that his purified consciousness enters into the selves of his disciples and communicates its particular characteristic.
In this process the disciple is made part of the spiritual family kula - a family which is not based on blood relations but on people of the same knowledge. Bhakti extends from the simplest expression of devotion to the ego-destroying principle of prapattiwhich is total surrender. The bhakti form of the guru—shishya relationship generally incorporates three primary beliefs or practices: Devotion to the guru as a divine figure or Avatar. This doctrine is perhaps best expressed in the teachings of the four Samayacharya saints, who shared a profound and mystical love of Siva expressed by: Deep humility and self-effacement, admission of sin and weakness; Total surrender to God as the only true refuge; and A relationship of lover and beloved known as bridal mysticismin which the devotee is the bride and Siva the bridegroom.
In its most extreme form it sometimes includes: The assignment of all or many of the material possessions of the shishya to the guru. The strict and unconditional adherence by the shishya to all of the commands of the guru.
An example is the legend that Karna silently bore the pain of a wasp stinging his thigh so as not to disturb his guru Parashurama. A system of various titles of implied superiority or deification which the guru assumes, and often requires the shishya to use whenever addressing the guru. The requirement that the shishya engage in various forms of physical demonstrations of affection towards the guru, such as bowing, kissing the hands or feet of the guru, and sometimes agreeing to various physical punishments as may sometimes be ordered by the guru.