Dec 23, - Rent Apartments in Hedemora, Sweden from $20/night. Places to stay in Hedemora .. Private apartment with forest by the door, Spring .. You will find the 'kyrkstigen' just down the hill, which is a beautiful hiking trail place is a great place to get away from it all, go for walks and meet new people. Saturday, October 12, BER 12, Fourteen Are Named To Go In Covington Handicap At Latonia Today GUN ROYAL fGLLYERS CO Latonia Entries. The party of ministers left Sweden in August , and having met some delays reside in his own place on the Society Hill (at the present intersection of Pine and .. and schoolmaster at the Raccoon congregation, and finally, in the spring of , after having received a royal commission for the pastorate of Hedemora.
Since there are not many kilometers it can be done in several days, always going back to sleep at your starting point. If you come by this area in summer, it is convenient to keep in mind when the Musik vid Siljan music festival is held always in week 27 of the year in case you are interested in attending one of the countless concerts that take place.
View of Lake Siljan from Vidablick Photo: In fact, in the first tourist hotel in the country was built here. These cruises on the Siljan offer seafood tasting, with dancing included, dinner or lunch or just a few hours for shopping in any of the big cities by the lake. In the store you will find new and second quality products at reasonable prices.
If you are interested in this type of second hand shopping, I recommend that you bring cash because they rarely accept credit or debit cards. Unfortunately in more than one occasion we had to return empty-handed for not carrying pocket money: Loppis, Flea Markets in Sweden Photo: There are guided tours during summer months where you can visit the area outside of concerts or events.
During our stay in Dalarna — at the end of June — we were able to enjoy bumping into a lot of classic Swedish and American cars on the streets and roads of the region. By visiting the two factories you will be able to appreciate the handmade manufacturing process and get to know the history behind the painting style which decorate the horses called kurbits.
In one of the factories you can even do a painting workshop and bring home your own horse painted by you. Here you will enjoy a menu at a very good price both in quantity, variety and cost. In Mora there are several unique tourist spots. One of them is the Museum and Home of Anders and Emma Zorn that shows how early 20th century homes were and whose garden contains wooden buildings of the 13th century. Next to the arrival door you also have the Vasaloppet Museum.
It also allows us to see how the race has adapted over the years and has become the tourist-sporting attraction that it currently is. And not only in winter. The village is very small and we basically did a little shopping downtown both in interior design boutiques and in loppis stuffed with all kinds of things. For example if you are looking for a typical Swedish carpet trasmatta to bring home and do not have a problem with buying second hand, a loppis can be a perfect place to find it for a tenth of the price of a new one.
North of Orsa there are two very interesting places to visit. In the park there are bears, polar bears, wolves, snow leopards up to a total of ten different types of predators. Robinson adopted the widow, calling her his mother, and got the widow to change the will for his benefit.
In this he was supported by English Law, which prohibited to will land to any church, and although the Assembly of the Province had enacted a contradictory act, it did not finally become a law as it was repealed in England. Likewise the widow's support had to be taken into consideration. Before Andreas Hesselius left for Sweden, inthe widow had died and therefore the will went into effect, and as Robertson insisted of keeping the land, a complaint was made by the elders of the church to Governor William Keith, who appointed three Justices of the Peace to examine the affair, and there the matter remained.
The case could not be very well taken to the court, on account of the English law, unfavorable to the church. The congregation thought that whatever could be got from Robinson voluntarily, is best to take, and Robinson agreed to contribute 15 pounds in all for the will, the homestead being then valued over pounds.
Some members of the congregation notified these transactions to Provost Bjork and Bishop Svedberg in Sweden, likewise that Samuel Hesselius was using his time in attaining the English congregations and was neglecting his own church for weeks and the teaching of the children. Although Samuel Hesselius was not alone guilty for giving much attention to the English churches, as all the Swedish ministers from the time of Rudman and Bjork did it for the gifts or regular salaries that they received for doing it, from the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
In a letter of December 11, to the Society, the Vestry of the English Episcopalian Church of Appoquimininck are describing the great services that Bjork had been doing to their congregation and petitioned some reward for him from the Society, saying that he was receiving from his own congregation only 15 pounds yearly, although Mr. Bjork during the first years at least received about pounds, besides extra income from all burials, baptisms, marriages, churchings, etc.
Bjork left the country with a fortune. On account of the informations against Samuel Hesselius, he was strongly admonished by Provost Bjork and Bishop Svedberg, by letter, of neglect of his congregation and selling and giving up the Bread and Cheese Island, that was willed to the church by Johansson. Governor Patrick Gordon likewise had received complaint against Robinson, from the old pastors Bjork and Andreas Hesselius.
Upon this the governor appointed three Justices of the Peace to investigate. All parties concerned in the matter met on the 6th of Septemberon the Brandywine Ferry, and Samuel Hesselius was totally acquitted of being guilty to any neglect of duty, or as regarded the sale of land.
The Pastor sent over to Bishop Svedberg the decision, also good testimonial from the English clergy of the Province, from the English church in Chester and one from his own parish. Furthermore he decided to return to Sweden and with new testimonials left the country in November His second wife Gerdrud Stille died during the voyage to Sweden, and was buried to the ocean.
Hesselius arrived to Sweden with four children, and his recommendations from the colony did not help him in recovering the confidence of the church authorities upon him. He received a parish only inand died two years later. Gabriel Falk to the Wicaco church inthe congregation was presided over by the Rev.
Johan Eneberg, who had come to America about that time and had been preaching first in the German Settlements. As the Christina congregation now became vacant after the departure of Samuel Hesselius, Eneberg came once a month to preach in that church and the Rev.
Tranberg from Raccoon likewise attended the Christina congregation. Finally Eneberg moved to Christina, having received a commission as pastor of that congregation from King Frederick of Sweden, given at Stockholm on July 4, The Christina congregation at this time was preferred by the Swedish ministers, and Eneberg entered upon his duties there at the beginning of At this period the Finns along the Brandywine and the Christiana Creeks had become great producers of wheat and all kinds of provisions.
These they brought down the creeks to the neck of land formed by the conjunction of the above said creeks, where they had their church, in whose neighborhood merchants had sprung up. Finally there was born an idea of building a town like Philadelphia on the neck, it being much the same as the neck of land between the Schuylkill and Delaware upon which Philadelphia was first laid out.
Just as Philadelphia was built a little distance above end of the neck, so was this new town built a short distance above the end of the peninsula. The good, navigable shore on the Christiana Creek and the fact that the old highways met at this section, favored this site for a commercial centre. On SeptemberAndreas Justison assigned to his son-in-law, Thomas Willing, an Englishman, a part of his land on the Christiana Creek, and the latter laid his parcel out for a town plot, after the plan of Philadelphia, starting to sell lots for adventurers in his "Willingtown.
On November 18th of the latter year, the Christina congregation likewise commissioned their church wardens, together with one of the elders, to act for the church as trustees in order to divide the church glebe and lay it out into streets and building lots and then to rent out these lots, to give deeds for the same and to receive the annual rents.
They were to do this in their own name, as it was against the English law to a church to engage in any land transactions. The trustees were to keep book and to make account of their transactions to the congregation once a year. The minister of the church was to receive two-thirds of the yearly income of the lots and the remaining one-third was to be used for the maintenance of the church and parsonage.
Two town lots were to be left to the parsonage for the use of the minister. An Englishman, Goldsmith E. Followel, a citizen of Willingtown, who was the sales agent for the lots to his Quaker friends, was assigned as the bookkeeper of the corporation, on bond of five hundred pounds. But the provision, made by the Christina congregation, that the minister was to receive two-thirds of the income of the town lots, was most injurious to the land property of the church, as the ministers, desiring to make out of the land as much as possible, before their return back to Sweden, continually harrassed the trustees, who were obliged to make presents of lots to the ministers to rent out the lots as fast as possible, and to give from their own pockets moneys that had not come in regularly from the rents, wherefore they were forced to sell lots to get reimbursed.
Eneberg left for his native country inthe church property was already much vasted, and before his journey, the trustees were obliged to advance to him one, hundred pounds upon unpaid rents, for which they afterwards had to sell lots to pay the sum. Inthe church wall on the north side was found to have bent outwards by the weight of the roof and the settling of the foundation, it was therefore necessary to built two arches for the support of the wall.
These arches were built over the doors, and served as vestibules. The bell still was hanging in a walnut tree on the side of the church, but now a little wooden tower was built upon one of these outbuildings and the bell hung in it. The walnut tree was then cut down as the squirrels made it a perpetual home for themselves, on account of the nuts, and building their nests upon the arches injured the roof. The new down was growing very handsomely, having more than one hundred and twenty houses in As the Trinity Church was the only one in the place, it became more and more the object of attention.
On Christmas day, matins had been celebrated in the church, but as they became too much the curiosity of the new English population of the town, who gathered staring at it and to make fun of it, the celebrations were discontinued.
To acquaint the reader to this festivity, we describe how Christmas was celebrated in the peasant homes in Finland during the very recent years.
On the Christmas eve the peasant invited his tenants to his home, where in the large, rustic hall of the peasant house a Christmas tree had been set up, and at the blaze of fire in the large fire place, amplified by lit candles of the Christmas tree, a supper was enjoyed, Christmas hymns were sung and holiday stories from the Christmas magazines were read by some student member of the family, who had come home for the holiday season.
The evening was pleasantly concluded by the distribution of gifts to the tenant families. These consisted of some products of the farm, as a large loaf of rye bread, which for Christmas was sweetened by fermentation, and a piece of pork or the like.
Those tenants who did not keep horses were invited to gather again to the house in the morning, between four ana five o'clock, to be taken to the Matins in the church. For the journey to the church, the horses were harnessed luxuriously, and a great number of bells were attached to the harness.
Early in the Christmas morning the country-side was then one hum of bells, after intervals superseded by the toll of the church bells, as the people rode to the Matins in sleighs. At the church were rows of stalls for the horses, each peasant having his own stable there. The large windows of the church were full of lit candles, making the edifice a perpetual light tower in the December night of the north.
Over the aisles of the church, between intervals, arches had been placed with lit candles. The reflections of the prisms in the chandeliers and of the gilded ornaments of the altar, gave a brilliant aspect to the environment. The services consisted of an organ recital, singing of Christmas hymns, chorus recital and a sermon about the Child of Bethlehem, which by the acquisitions during centuries had developed to the highest pitch of elocution. The congregation, at the dawn of the daylight, marched out of the church at the rythm of the organ and the tolling of the church bells.
Then the bell bedecked horses were drawn for comparison, the homeward journey was started, each party to his own direction, and although in other occasion it was against the etiquette to pass another church party on the highway, on the Christmas morning there was a great race, which was talked about with great delight during the rest of the holiday season.
The church of Wicaco had been without a minister since the latter part of the yearhaving been served by Eneberg from Christina and by Tranberg from Raccoon and Pennsneck, but on the 2nd of Novembera minister, the Rev. Johannes Dylander arrived to Philadelphia from Sweden. At this period the position of the Swedish ministers was getting difficult for the reason that great part of their congregations did not understand the Swedish language. The early Finnish colonists, having been.
Their descendants had been acquainted with the Swedish language only by the Swedish ministers and schoolmasters who taught them to read the catechism. At the arrival of Mr. Dylander, the congregation preferred the English language for their church and many had united with the English churches. The Wicaco congregation had only sixty families left on the arrival of the minister, but after Dylander had acquired the English language and was preaching on the Sunday afternoons in that language, he could increase his congregation into one hundred families.
He also preached in the Wicaco church during more than a year, early in the morning in the German language, to that nationality, who were without minister. Dylander was an industrious man and was so well liked, that the English ministers, of Philadelphia made a complaint against him because the English had acquired the habit of celebrating their marriages in the Wicaco church.
During his time the church went through extensive repairs and a new organ also was installed. The church finances also became improved for the reason that the suburb of Philadelphia, called Society Hill, had stretched itself to the neighborhood of the church, so the church land was divided into city lots and were rented out through the church wardens. The glebe in Passayunk likewise was rented out for pasture land.
Besides taking good care of his congregation Mr. Dylander travelled in the outlying Finnish, German and English settlements, delivering as many as sixteen sermons weekly.
This however soon broke his health, he had on account of sickness to give up the German and English services and his entire work was terminated by death on the 2nd day of NovemberMr. Dylander left a widow who was the daughter of Peter Cock of Passayunk.
He was interred beneath the chancel in the Wicaco church, the funeral being conducted in English by Pastor Tranberg, in presence of a large and cosmopolitan congregation. Tranberg of Raccoon and Pennsneck was the only Swedish minister left in America.
Tranberg had requested the Consistory of Upsala to be appointed for the Christina congregation after the departure of the Rev. This had been granted to him and while Mr. Eneberg still was in the country, Tranberg became the minister of the Christina Church, on August 1, Although the Christina people were pleased to receive a minister, the people of Raccoon and Pennsneck were much displeased for his transfer, especially as they felt that Mr.
Tranberg had been well treated and had massed a fortune during his fourteen years with the New Jersey congregations.
In a resolution entered into the Raccoon church book the congregation resented the arbitrary manner of the transfer by the Swedish king and bishop, declaring that the congregation alone had to do with the ministers, and that no more ministers to be ordered from Sweden.
The parsonage of the Christina congregation, in the Willingtown, now becoming to be known as Wilmington, had become antiquated, so Mr. Tranberg decided to build a house of his own, and for this purpose was given a lot, near the old parsonage, by the congregation. The house was built of brick and was then one of the finest in the new town, which at this time had some six hundred inhabitants.
The negress of the parsonage, who inwas bought for forty pounds, had likewise become old and contrary, wherefore she was sold in public auction at the slave market, bringing only seven shillings. A cow was the most valuable part of the inventory of the parsonage, that were turned over to Mr. Like in the Wicaco congregation, here too the Finnish descendants had not had enough opportunity since the coming of the English people to keep up their understanding of the Swedish language, despite the efforts of the Swedish ministers.
English had become the language of communication between the old settlers and the English, German and other new immigrants. A large part of the Finnish descendants preferred the English language to the Swedish in their church, besides there were many English non-Quakers in Wilmington who did not have any church at all, therefore, by the desire of the congregation, services were held in the morning in Swedish and in the afternoon in English.
Tranberg also attended several English churches and sometimes also preached in the German church at Lancaster. The land affairs of the church were the same as during the time of Mr. Some of the ground rent did not come in regularly and others did not come in at all. As the minister's income depended upon what was realized from the church land, the trustees naturally were chased by him to convert the property into money.
To satisfy the minister he was given one whole block in Wilmington as his property forever, not however as settlement for the uncollected ground rents, as these were afterwards fully drawn out. Ina new arrangement was invented by which the church land was committed into the hand of two trustees who were to handle the property as their own and to sell, rent and sue in their own name.
For this each of the trustees were required to give a bond of five hundred pounds for the congregation. The property was fairly well managed by these trustees, only some moneys were lost for having been lent out without security, also notes were taken as part payments for lots and when the buyer occasionally failed, the notes became worthless.
The Wicaco congregation notified in a letter of November 16,to the Consistory of Upsala, Sweden, about the death of their minister, the Rev. Dylander, and requested for a new minister. But it was only on October 20,when a new minister the Rev. Gabriel Naesman arrived to Philadelphia. On the arrival of Mr. Naesman, he found the congregation in extremely bad shape.
There were but few old people yet who could understand Swedish, most of the people had joined to the English churches and to an association established by George Whitefield, who by great elocution attracted the people of every variety of faith, while others were let away by so called Moravian Brethren or Herrnhuters. These Hussite dissenders were known as Moravians from their original abode, and as Herrnhuters from their patron and bishop, Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf had given them in land on his estate in Saxony, where they established their settlement known as Herrnhut Lord's watch.
Their first permanent settlements in Pennsylvania were Bethlehem and Nazareth. In DecemberCount Zinzendorf arrived to Philadelphia, there being at this time about twenty-five or thirty Moravians in Pennsylvania.
A sermon delivered by Count Zinzendorf, on the 10th day of Januaryin Philadelphia, translated into English and printed by Benjamin Franklin inis found today in the Helsingfors University library. Count Zinzendorf was a great elocutionist, and as the German immigrants, who came in numbers to the country at this time, were poorly provided or without a minister, he made a great success among the Germans.
Bryzelius, who was assigned to work among the Finns, was in the country before the arrival of Pastor Naesman, and had found an opportune time as there was only one Swedish minister, the Rev. Tranberg, working among the Finns. When Tranberg left the Raccoon and Pennsneck parishes, these were attended about a year by a Swedish student Olof Malander, who came to the country with the Rev.
Dylander into work as schoolmaster. But there are found complaints against his wife and Malander himself became imprisoned for debts, after which he obtained employment in the printing office of Benjamin Franklin.
He joined to the Moravian Brotherhood, and produced the Moravian catechism in the Swedish language at the Franklin's printing establishment inhaving been translated from the German by Bryzelius. As the churches of Raccoon and Pennsneck were without minister, these were open to the Rev. Bryzelius, while the congregation of Wicaco had not accepted his offer to preach.
All these had to be met by the Rev. Naesman, on his arrival in October And more than that, Pastor Naesman was struck to a very vulnerable point, as his rival, Mr. Bryzelius, was the more acceptable to his congregation because he did not accept any salary for his work, but declared that the Moravians would not preach for money.
In the Raccoon congregation was found however people who desired to hear the newly arrived minister of Wicaco to preach in their church, and on the third Sunday in AdventNaesman arrived to officiate there, supplanting Bryzelius who remained as listener.
When the service was over, the Naesman party desired the congregation to invite him to preach there once a month, while Bryzelius declared that he is ready to preach them twice a month. This led to a lively argument between the two pastors and their supporters.
However Naesman could not attend the Raccoon church every Sunday to keep his flock together and to the Pennsneck church he was not even invited, it had completely fallen to the Moravian sect.
Tranberg of Wilmington occasionally preached in the Pennsneck church, but he was not so particular about sects, he and his wife are accused of having been sympathizers with the Moravians and Bryzelius was welcomed to their home. The affairs became into culmination in Raccoon, in Decemberas Bryzelius was to preach in the church. A great number of people had assembled, one party was composed of the supporters of Bryzelius and the other party was there to keep him out of the church, still others had come only to enjoy the fun.
As the opposition party had the church-key, which they did not give up, therefore the supporters of Bryzelius broke a window and one of them crept in to open the door from inside. But no service could be held on account of the fight, noise and confusion that ensued. The affair ended that an arbitration court of twentyfive men were agreed upon to gather at Gloucester, New Jersey, before which appeared the Rev.
Naesman and the Rev. Bryzelius as spokesmen for their respective party. Naesman at once overawed his opponent by flourishing a diploma as Master of Arts and also a minister's letter and commission from the Consigtory of Upsala. He made complaints and accusations against Bryzelius, who completely disappointed his followers by not making any reply.
The Moravian party was fined fifty pounds and prohibited for keeping services in the church. The Moravian movement among the Finns in western New Jersey, however did not perish to this, and although Bryzelius was recalled from the mission inthere were now other Swedish students of theology at the disposal of the Brotherhood for this mission.
The German Lutherans of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, had received upon their application a minister from Sweden. This was the Rev. Lars Nyberg, who arrived to the country in Nyberg had been converted to Moravian. Brotherhood already in Sweden, although he kept it a secret, but within a year he had fully disposed himself, had married a Moravian sister and brought the congregation in turmoil and became closed out of the church with his party. Nyberg kept in Lancaster untilwhere he founded a Moravian church, he visited the Finns in New Jersey and supplied them with Swedish missionaries, among which was Abraham Reincke, son of a Stockholm merchant, whom his parents had sent to Germany to study theology and had joined to the Moravians.
Reincke's records show his operation among the New Jersey Finns, starting in the spring ofafter the recall of Mr. The Raccoon and Pennsneck district was suitable for the new Swedish adventurers, who did not know the English language, as the people there were descendants of early Finnish and some Dutch settlers whose children had been taught to read in Swedish by the Swedish schoolmasters that came to the country with the ministers or by themselves as adventurers.
As only few English had settled there, there were no English schools nor such a daily need of the English language as in other places along the Delaware. Therefore these were the last Finnish settlements to become Anglinized. Reincke, preaching around in the private houses and in the Pennsneck church, kept with the aid of Mr. Nyberg the congregation so scattered, that it was only on November 17,when a petition was, finally mailed.
And as things did not work fast in those days, it was on May 25,when the Rev. Johan Sandin was appointed to the mission as Provost of the Swedish ministers in America. After eighteen weeks journey, Pastor Sandin arrived to Philadelphia overland from New York, on March 29, and preached his first sermon in the Raccoon church on the following Palm Sunday. But the Pennsneck people held to the Moravians, and although the church had been closed for their preachers inthe Brethren again occupied the pulpit there at the arrival of Provost Sandin.
Sandin offered his services to them, they accepted his offer only on the condition, that he officiate in the English language. This naturally was hard for a man newly arrived from Sweden, and Pastor Sandin has much complaints to make in his letters to the Consistory of Upsala.
He found the conditions here much different than in Sweden. The people could not be prevailed upon here for church discipline and besides there was the general Anglinizing movement going then on among the non-English colonists, a movement in the evolution of nations against which an individual or group of individuals will be out of luck.
Provost Sandin's struggle against the great odds however were not long, after having been in the country a little less than six months, he died on September 22,leaving a widow, m. Anna Margareta Sjoman, with a daughter and new-born baby to a strange land. As the Finnish and the German congregations were hard pressed by the Moravians, some of the members of these congregations worked for a union against these intruders.
The Finnish congregation of Wicaco had received as a member one Peter Kock, a newly arrived Swedish adventurer, not belonging to the Peter Cock family of the early colonists, whose descendants were now mostly known as Coxwho had engaged in business in Philadelphia. As the descendants of the old Finnish families, who had built the church, were not taking much active interest in the church affairs, on account of being Anglinized and not knowing the Swedish language, Mr. Kock became the real leader of the church affairs.
He supported and worked for the union of these old churches of the Finns and of the German Lutherans, but Pastor Naesman of Wicaco was against this plan for the reason that these old Finnish churches had valuable properties in church buildings and lands, while the German congregations still were poor.
Kock, who had large business interests among the Germans, insisted upon union and finally tried to get Pastor Naesman out of the way, by writing against him to the Consistory of Upsala requesting his recall and offering to pay the travelling expenses of a new minister.
On the other hand he tried to force Mr. Naesman to quit, by holding the rents that came from the lots owned by the church, that were to pay the salary of the minister.
Naesman however managed to make his living by preaching in the outlying settlements. The Consistory of Upsala, not being able to notice that the real fault of the troubles was that the Swedish ministers had grown out of date in America, sent two new ministers for the Finnish congregations on the Delaware.
These were the Rev. Israel Acrelius and the Rev. Erik Unander, who arrived to Philadelphia on November 6,bringing a letter from the Consistory of Upsala to Pastor Naesman advising him to prepare for his return to Sweden, as another minister, to replace him, was only detained in Sweden on account of falling sick when the other ministers departed.
This was a disappointment to Pastor Naesman, as he had thought that things would be alright now as his opponent Mr.
Kock had lately died. Pastor Acrelius who had been appointed as provost of the Swedish ministers in America, likewise brought a recall to Sweden for Pastor Tranberg of Christina, who after Provost Sandin's death had written to the consistory of Upsala, desiring to be promoted to the office of provost, but which did not materialize for he was suspected of Moravian syrlipathies.
Pastor Tranberg did not however live to be disappointed, for he died on a visit to his old congregation in Pennsneck, on November 8,and his remains were interred beneath the great aisle in the Trinity Church at Wilmington.
The Moravians had made a considerable progress among the Finns in New Jersey. At Raccoon their meetings were held in private houses, but in Piles Grove they built a church of their own, which was dedicated by the Moravian Bishop Spangenberg and the Rev. Lars Nyberg in The Finnish church at Pennsneck was very much theirs since the death of Pastor Sandin, while at Maurice River they had a meeting house, which was dedicated on December 18, Meetings were also held at Great and Little Egg Harbor.
The first burial in the Moravian graveyard at Piles Grove church was that of Molly Holstein, wife of Lars Holstein, who died on November 20,nine days after the birth of a child Mary. Among the prominent families of the old Finnish colonists, that belonged to the Moravian congregations in New Jersey, were the Holsteins original name Halttunen, changed to Haltun, Holton and Holsteinthe Mullicas, first settlers and founders of the town of Mullica Hill, New Jersey, original name Mullikkathe Locks, descendants of the Rev.
After the death of the Rev.
The Delaware Finns
Naesman, and his standing badly shaken by the machinations of the Swedish merchant Kock. Fortunately there arrived on September 15,to Philadelphia Mr. Professor Kalm came to America to discover plants that might be cultivated in the northern countries of Europe. Being a minister's son from the northern Finland and himself an ordained Lutheran Minister, Mr.
Kalm used his time in the winter of to preach in the Raccoon church on Sundays. He remained in America until February 16,during which time he made a systematic study of the vegetation of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York and Eastern Canada, and the flora of Sweden and Finland became much enriched by the seeds and plants that Professor Kalm took with him or shipped before his return. Professor Kalm, on his return to Finland, commenced to write an account of his observations during his journey to and in America.
This was done in the manner of a diary, and three volumes of it became published between the years ofcontaining observations made until October 2, It was his plan to continue the work in three more volumes, but he developed some eye trouble and his time was much occupied in the University and in the endeavor to make the American plants successful in his experimenting grounds, besides he had taken up the ministerial duties of a parish near the town of Turku and had the ambition to become a bishop.
It was only inthat Kalm was ready with his fourth volume, but in the meantime his publisher in Stockholm, Sweden, had died and the business discontinued, and although Kalm's first volumes, which were written in Swedish, had been translated and published in several languages, he could not find a Swedish publisher, who would have taken up to continue the publication of his work.
While negotiations were going on to publish them in the German language in Germany, Kalm died on November 2,and the rest of his work never became published. The manuscripts became lost, which is regrettable as the published part of his work is the best source in existence for information about manners, customs, social conditions and about he life in general at that period in America.
Kalm's manuscripts became the property of the University of Turku inand it is believed that the manuscripts for the unpublished part of his American travel were destroyed inwhen the city of Turku was devastated by fire and with it went into ashes most part of the library and archives of the ancient university. Fortunately Kalm's diary, which had served as the foundation for the printed volumes, and little further, has found its way to the library of the University of Helsingfors.
This embraces the time up to January 12, A number of books, of which some are the only copies in existence, printed by William Bradford, Benjamin Franklin and Reinier Jansen, collected by Professor Kalm during his visit in America, are today found in the library of the Helsingfors University.
However his name is immortalized by the scientific name Kalmia latifolia of the beautifully blooming Mountain-laurel, that is the chiefest adornation of the forests in America in which Kalm spent two years and a half in studying. Eric Unander arrived to Philadelphia on November 6,to became the minister for the Finnish churches of Raccoon and Pennsneck, the services of Mr.
Kalm were no longer required there. In Junethere arrived another minister, John Abraham Lidenius, to be assistant minister with the New Jersey congregations. Lidenius was a native of Raccoon, who was taken to Sweden in with his parents, the Rev. Abraham Lidenius and Maria, daughter of Van Naeman. He alternated with Unander in preaching in the settlements on the east side of the Delaware River, and also went to preach for the Finns in Morlatton at Manatawny.
In NovemberMr. Lidenius by the desire of the people of Morlatton went to reside with them and in the following month became married there, to the daughter of the village tailor Ringberg. The Finnish church in Morlatton had been served for few years before this by the German Baron Muhlenberg, who was the minister of the German congregation of Falkner Swamp. Olof Parlin who was commissioned by the Consistory of Upsala, together with Acrelius and Unander, on May 29,for a mission to America, had recovered from his intermittent fever to which he fell at the time that his partners departed for the journey, and arrived to Philadelphia on July 7, Parlin replaced the Rev.
Naesman in the Wicaco parish, whom the congregation provided with twenty pounds for traveling expenses, besides paying the balance of his salary which amounted to ninety-six pounds and thirteen shillings.
Naesman did not hurry back to Sweden however, it was only in Novemberwhen he left Philadelphia for the West Indies, leaving his wife Margaretta Rambo and a little son David behind him.
What to Do and See in the South of Dalarna: Falun & Lake Siljan
In the islands of Antigua and St. Eustasia, he was trying his luck in business and also was tutoring and preaching to the new German colonists, finally reaching Amsterdam, Holland, from where he wrote to the Consistory of Upsala informing of his want of means to reach home and likewise had his wife and baby in America. In the meantime letters of the new Swedish ministers in America had made the Consistory aware that Mr. Naesman was not so much to be blamed but the fault was in the people.
The real fault being that but few of the Finnish descendants understood the Swedish language and their parents having been born on the Delaware River, they felt themselves Americans. The Swedish government therefore provided for Mr. Naesman one thousand five hundred daler in copper coin and an equal sum was deposited in London for his wife and child. While in the uncertainty in waiting his reply from Sweden, Mr.
Naesman interested himself in the science of medicine. And after having spent three months in Paris, France, specializing in the department of midwifery, he intended to return to Pennsylvania as a physician, but as he was looking for passage over the ocean in Rouen, a letter from the Archbishop of Sweden was delivered to him, informing that money for his home journey was already in Amsterdam and likewise for his famiby in London.
Naesman therefore changed his plans and returned to Sweden, where he received one thousand two hundred daler in copper per year for five years, nearly corresponding to the time that he had left his congregation, besides the title of Professor was bestowed upon him, which is the greatest honor in the line of learning in Sweden, furthermore he was appointed to the first class parish of Christianstad. The Finnish congregations on the Delaware, now had four Swedish ministers, and new spirit had been introduced to the churches.
The Moravian movement among the Finns had subsided, the Rev. Nyberg had disappeared from. Nyberg finally appears in Sweden, regretful and pardoned.
The management of the Wicaco church property was permanently settled upon twelve trustees, who were to elect twelve new trustees in their place from the members of the congregation, after only five of the first twelve survived and the same proceeding was to continue. Two of the trustees were to be annually elected as administrators, who should collect the rent and give an account of the same to the vestry of the congregation.
The yearly rents at this time amounted to fifty pounds. A contribution was taken up in the Wicaco congregation and the roof, windows and organ of the church were repaired, also the churchyard and parsonage grounds were fenced in. At the Wilmington church the hymnbooks were rebound, the church was emptied from birds' nests from the inside, the walls and ceiling were whitewashed, the pulpit and chancel around ithe altar polished, the altar provided with linen, which all had been neglected in late years, and the women of the congregation came together and scoured the floor and pews of the church.
New windows also were made to the church and the roof was repaired. The congregation collected fifteen pounds to buy a horse as a gift to their new minister Acrelius.
Furthermore, a new parsonage was built in Wilmington, of brick, three stories high, with two rooms upon each floor, while the old parson house was converted into an outbuilding and stable for the new one. The accounts of the management of the church property in Wilmington were audited when a deficiency of about fifty pounds was found and the management rearranged on more equitable basis.
The income from money and lots owned by the church at this period exceeded fifty pounds. Besides his salary and extra income the minister had been for his use provided with a considerable area of garden, grain field, forest and meadow land. In Raccoon the parsonage was repaired and several rooms added to it. The garden was fenced in, and a fine vegetable garden made in front of the house, also a barn was built for the use of the minister. The farm belonging to the parsonage was well fenced, the fields manured and increased by new clearings.
The meadow was ditched and cleared up, increasing it to many loads of hay. But despite all the good will of the Finnish descendants to preserve their forefathers' religion and the edifices of worship built by their ancestors, all went to ruin for the selfish desire of the authorities in Sweden to propagate and preserve the Swedish language in America.
The third article of the instructions given by the Consistory of Upsala to Provost Acrelius, to be followed Ly the Swedish ministers, orders that all teaching in the schools must be done in the Swedish language. At this period the Finns had nearly forgotten the Swedish language, they apologized to Provost Acrelius that they did not understand Swedish, although they did like to.
Therefore, while the Wilmington congregation had in and as many as members, only 68 of these were communicants. The Philadelphia congregation had members and only 21 communicants. The Raccoon and Pennsneck congregations had members and proportionately little communicants.
The people, although they remained as members in their forefathers' churches, went to the English churches for not understanding the Swedish language. The parents likewise sent their children to the English schools to learn a language that was not only useful but necessary for any advancement in the country, where it now was the universal language.
John Lidenius of Morlatton, who was a native of the Delaware River settlement, better understood the psychology of the natives, and preached and taught school in the English language, wherefore he was warned in brotherly way of it by Provost Acrelius, and when it did not change his attitude, although he was likewise persuaded to retract by the German ministers, who also were engaged in the hopeless task of fighting the Anglinizing movement among their congregations. The Provost wrote on October 31,to the Consistory of Upsala, requesting the suspension of the Rev.
Lidenius from the Swedish ministerial office. Lidenius now started to think of the consequences at his probable return to Sweden, he would not have a ny hope of receiving a minister's office there, in a country where it was so highly valued. He therefore left Morlatton in the spring ofand settled at Amasland, where he preached on three Sundays a month and the rest of the time in Marcus Hook and other places.
Lidenius was welcomed to the society of his ministerial brethren and on May 23,Provost Acrelius wrote to the Consistory of Upsala, recommending pardon for Lidenius. But all these had exactly the results against which the Swedish ministers were so eagerly fighting. For the futile efforts of the Swedish government to maintain the Swedish language among the Finns in America, the Finnish descendants even lost their forefathers' religion.
The Finnish congregation in Morlatton, together with few English families in Reading, Pennsylvania, agreed to call an English minister for themselves and subscribed to pay to the minister sixty pounds in yearly salary. Inthey wrote to London, England, for the Society of Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, desiring a missionary of the church of England, and proposing to the office Joseph Mathers, who was born in Pennsylvania.
An English Episcopal minister Alexander Murray was soon sent for them, and on April 9,he writes to London about the conditions in his parish.
There were then thirty-six families in Morlatton, consisting of souls, whereof 65 were under seven years of age. Most all the people were Finns, of which in twenty-seven could understand Swedish. On June 17,the church wardens and vestrymen of the "Episcopal Congregation at Morlatton, in the County of Berks," wrote to the Society of Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, at London, "That your petitioners do most heartily concur with their Brethren at Reading in presenting their humble and grateful acknowledgments for the benefit of the Mission appointed them and are sincerely desirous to pursue every measure that may conduce to its establishment, and as they are allowed sixty pounds out of the profit of a lottery for repairing their church, they have engaged to raise one hundred pounds more for forwarding that necessary work and which must cost them considerable more before it is completed.
But as it will accommodate themselves so they hope it will also encourage others to unite with them and enable them soon after to provide a glebe and parsonage and a better maintenance for their worthy missionary," etc. The position of the Swedish missionaries in America was not to be envied at this period. They were fighting against the birth of a new nation that nature had destined to evolve out of different sections of humanity, therefore they were men of hard luck and their letters to the Consistory of Upsala and their annals are full of doleful complaints.
Acrelius writes about the "downward slide" of his flock that: Then many a good and honest man rode upon a piece of bear skin; now scarcely any saddle is valued unless it has a saddle-cloth with galloon and fringe. Then servants and girls were seen in church barefooted; now young people will be like persons of quality in their dress; servants are seen with wigs of hair, and the like; girls with hooped skirts, fine-stuff shoes, and other finery.Mercedes Benz Spring Meet 2014 Diesel Madness!!!!!
Then respectable families lived in low log-houses, where the chimney was made of sticks covered with clay, now they erect painted houses of stone and brick in the country. Then they used ale and brandy, now wine and punch. Then they lived upon grits and mush, now upon tea, coffee, and chocolate. He also wore a wig, which he is said to have placed upon the pulpit while preaching. Where he got these privileges, he fails to explain. Another minister, the Rev. Erik Nordenlind, who arrived to the country in Septemberbefore having been two months in the country wrote the first one of his eight petitions to the Consistory of Upsala asking to be recalled home.
Provost Acrelius left for Sweden on November 9,after having petitioned to be released three years earlier. Parlin of the Wicaco congregation died on December 22,Mr. Nordenlind continuing with that congregation. Unander of the parish of Raccoon and Pennsneck, who had petitioned his archbishop to be permitted to return to Sweden with Mr.
Acrelius, was appointed to take the latter's place in the parish of Wilmington, while Mr. Lidenius of Amasland was appointed to the parish of Raccoon and Pennsneck. Once more the Swedish authorities made a grand assault for the maintenance of the Swedish language in America.
On June 12,the Rev. Doctor Carl Magnus Wrangel, and the Rev. Andreas Borell, were commissioned to go to America, Dr. Wrangel, who was one of the Swedish branch of nobility, of the illustrious Esthonian family of Wrangels, was to be the provost of the Swedish ministers, and his commission for the maintenance of the Swedish language was as drastic as ever.
The fifth article of his commission reads: To this end they must also keep the Swedish books in busy and active use, and when the ministers visit in the houses of the members of their congregation, they shall instruct how the Swedish books should be used.
And when the old people of the family die, the ministers must ask for the Swedish books found in the family, and not to allow them to come to another hands, but those who use them; otherwise to take them away, and allow no books sold, exchanged, given away, or disposed in any manner whatever, but to the true purpose of the mission. The Morlatton congregation had already fallen off from the reach of the Swedish missionaries, who at this time were sent uninvited to this country.