Track and field - Wikipedia
The pole vault track and landing area are also alongside the central running track . Shot put (or weight throw) is the only throwing event. Indoor track and field meets are relatively new in the world of athletic competition. And shot put has more security precautions, too. Outdoors. High School Outdoor Track & Field. States/Regions; Men Men's Top Athletes; Women Women's Top Athletes Outdoor Meet counts listed to the right.
Czechoslovak shot putter Plihan at the East German Indoor Athletics Championships Shot putter at the University of Nebraska,showing the circle and stopboard Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlandsand date back to approximately the first century.
Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotlandand were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made on the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules. Upon calling the athlete's name, the athlete may choose any part of the throwing circle to enter inside.
They have thirty seconds to commence the throwing motion otherwise it counts as a forfeit for the current match. The athlete may not wear gloves ; IAAF rules permit the taping of individual fingers. The athlete must rest the shot close to the neckand keep it tight to the neck throughout the motion.
The shot must be released above the height of the shoulderusing only one hand. The athlete may touch the inside surface of the circle or toe board, but must not touch the top or outside of the circle or toe board, or the ground beyond the circle. Limbs may however extend over the lines of the circle in the air. The shot must land in the legal sector The athlete must leave the throwing circle from the back.
Foul throws occur when an athlete: Does not pause within the circle before beginning the putting motion. Does not complete the putting movement within thirty seconds of having their name called. Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the vertical plane of his shoulder during the put. At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck then it is technically an illegal put. During the putting motion, touches with any part of the body including shoes: Puts a shot which either falls outside the throwing sector or touches a sector line on the initial impact.
Leaves the circle before the shot has landed. Does not leave from the rear half of the circle.
Regulation misconceptions[ edit ] The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules within professional competition: The athlete must enter the circle from the back none of the rule books contain such a clause.
The athlete entering the circle, then exiting and re-entering it prior to starting the throw results in a foul all the rule books allow an athlete to leave a circle prior to starting a throw, but this still counts within the one-minute time limit; the allowable method of exiting the circle varies by rule book.
Track and field
Loose clothing, shoelaces, or long hair touching outside the circle during a throw, or an athlete bringing a towel into the circle and then throwing it out prior to the put results in a foul A shot putter with a representation of the circle and legal sector Shot put area Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception inand it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.
Each competition has a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three preliminary rounds to determine qualification for the final, and then three more rounds in the final. Each competitor is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final rounds.TRACK AND FIELD: Shot Put
An early model of hurdling at the Detroit Athletic Club in Discrete modern track and field competitions, separate from general sporting festivals, were first recorded in the 19th century. These were typically organised by educational institutionsmilitary organisations and sports clubs as competitions between rival establishments. The Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt is the oldest running club in the world, with written records going back to and evidence that it was established by Runners were entered by "owners" and named as though they were horses.
The AAA Championshipsthe de facto British national championships despite being for England only, have been held annually since 3 July with breaks only during two world wars and — American athlete Jim Thorpe lost his Olympic medals having taken expense money for playing baseball, violating Olympic amateurism rules, before the Games.
Shot Put | az-links.info
The establishment of the modern Olympic Games at the end of the 19th century marked a new high for track and field. The Olympic athletics programmecomprising track and field events plus a marathon race, contained many of the foremost sporting competitions of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics also consolidated the use of metric measurements in international track and field events, both for race distances and for measuring jumps and throws.
The Olympic athletics programme greatly expanded over the next decades, and track and field contests remained among the Games' most prominent. The Olympics was the elite competition for track and field, and only amateur sportsmen could compete.
Track and field continued to be a largely amateur sport, as this rule was strictly enforced: Jim Thorpe was stripped of his track and field medals from the Olympics after it was revealed that he had taken expense money for playing baseball, violating Olympic amateurism rules, before the Games. His medals were reinstated 29 years after his death. The National Collegiate Athletic Association held their first Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship inmaking it one of the most prestigious competitions for students, and this was soon followed by the introduction of track and field at the inaugural World Student Games in Alice Milliat argued for the inclusion of women at the Olympics, but the International Olympic Committee refused.
She founded the International Women's Sports Federation in and, alongside a growing women's sports movement in Europe and North America, the group initiated of the Women's Olympiad held annually from to These events ultimately led to the introduction of five track and field events for women in the athletics at the Summer Olympics. Also inphysical education advocate Zhang Ruizhen called for greater equality and participation of women in Chinese track and field.
Marking an increasingly inclusive approach to the sport, major track and field competitions for disabled athletes were first introduced at the Summer Paralympics.
Carl Lewis was among the athletes who helped increase track and field's profile. With the rise of numerous regional championships, as well as the growth in Olympic-style multi-sport events such as the Commonwealth Games and the Pan-American Gamescompetitions between international track and field athletes became widespread.
From the s onwards, the sport gained more exposure and commercial appeal through television coverage and the increasing wealth of nations.