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The Lisu now live primarily in the high altitudes of the extreme northwest where, once again, opium poppies grow well.

Cambodian–Thai border dispute - WikiVisually

They are noted for, of all things, their ornate ceremonial gates, which are decorated with an array of explicit sexual imagery that ensures fertility and frightens away malevolent spirits.

A lack of game eventually forced them to take up agriculture. Although all of the hill tribes are essentially animistic in their religious beliefs, the Lahu are the only group to have a central temple for worship and ritual.

Though they, too, are animists, much of their belief system is grounded in a form of Chinese Taoism as well. About 70, Hmong refugees came to the United States in the s. Due to their proximity to the nations of Laos and Cambodia, the people of Eesahn Northeastern Thailand comprise a uniquely diverse ethnicity as well.

Most of the Thais in this region migrated west across the Mekong River from Laos, or north from Cambodia. Especially significant is the Laotian influence. Pahsah Eesahn, the form of Thai language that is spoken in this region, is a mixture of Thai, Lao, and other regional dialects.

To the urban Thai from Bangkok, pahsah Eesahn can sometimes sound like a foreign tongue. The people of Eesahn are also known for their expertise in traditional textile weaving, especially silk. We will take a closer look at Eesahn and the Thai silk industry in Chapter Two. As we have seen, the Kingdom of Thailand is marked by a wide array of geographic and demographic dimensions. Each region has its own particular character, but together they comprise a singular Thai identity that has been shaped and nurtured by a remarkable cultural history.

It is to that history that we will now turn our attention. While cultures throughout the Asian continent fell prey to the colonial oppression of European nations such as Spain, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal over the past five hundred years, Thailand preserved its independent sovereignty while yet developing and maintaining profitable trade relations and cultural exchanges with the West.

For this reason, the Thai people exude a profound sense of national pride and cultural identity. A Global Studies Handbook human cultures from the early Paleolithic period. Such a migration may be responsible for some of the tribal groups that we find in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

But probably the most remarkable archaeological discovery in Thailand is the civilization that developed at a tiny village called Ban Chiang, located on the Khorat Plateau in Northeastern Thailand near the Laotian border.

It is believed that early farmers began to settle in this area around BCE. In the early to mids, Dr. Chester Gorman, the prominent figure in twentieth-century Thai archaeology, uncovered a remarkable collection of artifacts at Ban Chiang, including a variety of tools and utensils made of both bronze and iron, well-executed ceramic vessels incised with intricate designs, evidence of sericulture silk makingas well as stone and glass ornamental beads.

The people of Ban Chiang also printed their own textiles, as evidenced by the discovery of clay rollers with line patterns incised on them. Notable also was the apparent scarcity of offensive weapons, which indicates a peaceful and stable society with a knowledge of metallurgy, ceramics, and agriculture that would have required a long period of prior development. All of this is quite significant because many of these bronze and iron tools have been dated to about — BCE, a date that challenges the long-held assumption that the advent of metallurgy i.

What became of the Ban Chiang civilization? This hypothesis is supported by the fact that bronze implements have been found in the central plains that have been dated to about BCE. Was the bronze technology brought to this region by the Ban Chiang culture, or was it the indigenous product of a civilization that was already in place?

The Early Kingdoms The genesis of every great ancient civilization is a river valley: In other words, the life-giving water that ebbs and flows with the seasons is like a nurturing goddess. It is readily accessible only from the coast, that is, from the Gulf of Thailand. As such, the Chao Praya river basin was well protected from excessive incursions of new populations and settlements. This area, therefore, would come to serve as the center of the sustained and flourishing cultures that shaped and defined Thai cultures to come.

Politically, theologically, and artistically, Indian culture took a firm hold and remains evident in Thailand to this day.

We shall briefly examine four of the most significant kingdoms that existed both prior to and concurrent with the first Thai kingdoms. These are the Dvaravati, the Srivijaya, the Khmer, and the Lanna. Although there is minimal historical documentation about the Davaravati and the Mons, it is known that Buddhism, the primary religion of Thailand, was introduced into the region during the Dvaravati period.

It is therefore quite possible that some of these missionaries came into Thailand with the Mons. Additional migrations into the region took place during the Dvaravati period. There was a Tibetan-Burmese migration from the northwest that formed the basis of the hill tribes found in Northern Thailand today.

But most important for our purposes, it was during the Dvaravati period that the Southern Chinese civilization known as the Tai would gradually migrate into Northern and Central Thailand to form the basis of the first independent Thai kingdom in the thirteenth century.

The Dvaravati were a loosely organized confederacy of villages with no substantial military power base. Today, Mon communities can still be found in Thailand, but they remain particularly prevalent in Myanmar Burma.

Due to its strategic location, it had significant control over sea routes and maritime trade between India, Southeast Asia, and China. Although physical evidence of this culture is limited, what does exist is exquisite, such as a superbly crafted bronze statue of Avalokitesvara, an Indian Buddhist bodhisattva in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition, a bodhisattva is a celestial being who embodies the compassion of the Buddha.

The Khmer — In approximately the first century BCE, the population that established the Khmer civilization settled in a region just south of the Khorat Plateau, in what is now northern Cambodia. InKing Jayavarman II — established his magnificent capital of Angkor, approximately kilometers 62 miles south of the current Thai border.

Over the next several hundred years, Angkor developed into the seat of a powerful empire that controlled most of Southeast Asia.

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Whereas the Dvaravati civilization introduced Buddhism to the region, the Khmer civilization embraced Hinduism as the state religion. Jayavarman II proclaimed himself as the divine incarnation of the Hindu god Shiva. Composed of more than one hundred temples, immense courtyards, and long sculpture-lined causeways, Angkor Wat was built and expanded over a period of some three hundred years — when the Khmer civilization was at the height of its power.

The largest temple structure in Angkor Wat was built by King Suryavarman II —in honor of the Hindu god Vishnu, with whom the devaraja identified himself. The Khmer capital of Angkor was sacked by the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya discussed below inand the Khmers abandoned the capital a year later. Even so, the Khmer civilization had a profound influence, both artistically and politically, on the development of modern Thai culture. The founder and first king of Lanna was Mengrai. While growing up, Mengrai despaired over the continual infighting that took place among the various Tai factions and warlords throughout the northern region.

In he moved his capital to Chiang Rai, and in he moved it again, this time to Chiang Mai. Infor example, he formed a significant alliance with the coexisting Thai kingdom of Sukhothai to the south.

It was a pact that came to serve both parties at pivotal times. The Ayutthayan army was turned back. Other notable kings of Lanna include Ku Na —whose continued alliance with Sukhothai allowed for the spread of Theravada Buddhism to Northern Thailand; and Tilok —who was responsible for vast and numerous building projects in and around Chiang Mai. The Kingdom of Lanna subsequently fell to the Burmese in The First Thai Kingdoms In the eleventh through the thirteenth centuries, the people who would eventually form the first definitively Thai kingdom migrated into Northern Thailand from southern China.

But was this an initial migration, or was it a return? Because the history of the Kingdom of Lanna is more or less contemporary with that of the first Thai kingdom of Sukhothai, it does not play a role in these hypothetical equations. A Global Studies Handbook the Tai were in a constant state of conflict with neighboring Chinese warlords. This state of affairs resulted in a gradual migration of the Tai into Northern and Central Thailand during the Dvaravati period, as noted above.

Ultimately, however, it was the thirteenth-century Mongol expansion of Kublai Khan that pushed the Tai southward once and for all. There they established the Tai empire of Nanchao before being forced southward once again by the aforementioned thirteenth-century Mongol expansion.

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In the water there is fish, in the field there is rice. Separated from one another by dense forests or mountains, they were individually powerless to present any significant challenge to the suzerainty of the powerful Khmer Empire based at Angkor.

But intwo Thai princes, Khun Bang Klang Hao and Khun Pha Muahng, combined their resources and, after attacking and defeating a local Khmer military commander, established the first truly independent Siamese kingdom at Sukhothai. As other minor Siamese states became aware of what had taken place, they, too, realized that their independence and survival required a united front against outside aggression.

Accordingly, they merged with Sukhothai, thereby increasing the size and power of this first independent Siamese kingdom. Their first challenge came soon. InSukhothai was attacked by Maa Sawt, a city-state near the Burmese border. But the kingdom was saved through the heroic efforts of the nineteen-year-old son of Indraditya. According to legend, he defeated the king of Maa Sawt in combat as they fought one another on elephant back in ancient Southeast Asia, mounted elephants were the traditional vehicles of battle.

King Ramkhamheng is responsible for numerous achievements during his long reign. Even though he was revered and respected as an accomplished warrior, Ramkhamheng was a wise and thoughtful administrator who knew when and when not to fight. He acknowledged and respected the sovereignty of other powerful Thai kingdoms in the region, such as Chiang Mai and Chiang Saen, with whom he concluded pacts of nonaggression.

In turn, delegations of Sukhothai monks traveled to Ceylon to study the newly revised Buddhist scriptures of the Theravada tradition. A Global Studies Handbook As Theravada Buddhism became firmly established, monks in Sukhothai began to practice a more meditative, disciplined, and monastic lifestyle.

Numerous temples were built, and new large-scale metal casting techniques produced exquisite images of the Buddha that reflected the meditative emphasis of the Theravada sect. In contrast to the Mahayana Buddhist traditions of most East Asian cultures, Theravada Buddhism serves as the spiritual base of every Southeast Asian nation except Vietnam. The particular character of the Theravada sect—and its difference from the Mahayana tradition—will be discussed in a later chapter.

Cambodian–Thai border dispute

The Sukhothai Buddha image is unique: When the Sinhalese Buddhist monks came to Sukhothai, we are told they brought a Buddha image with them as a gift for Ramkhamheng.

Because early Sinhalese Buddha images embody some of these same stylistic elements, it is believed that the Sukhothai Buddha evolved out of its precursor from Ceylon. Whereas spoken Thai evolved from the languages of Sankrit and Pali, the written language was based on previously existing Mon and Khmer scripts. A shared written language became the cultural glue that joined the scattered city-states into one Thai nation with an identity of its own.

Ramkhamheng was a very paternal and just ruler. In fact, so accessible was Ramkhamheng that, according to the stone inscription cited above, if any person had a grievance or concern, he could simply walk up to the palace, ring a bell that was mounted next to the front door, and be granted an audience with the king. When Ramkhamheng died inthe Kingdom of Sukhothai entered into a period of decline from which it never truly recovered.

The Ayutthaya Period — Located some four hundred kilometers miles south of Sukhothai on a large island in the Chao Praya River, the powerful Kingdom of Ayutthaya brought about a radical change in the manner in which monarchical identity was expressed and perceived. As noted earlier, the Sukhothai monarchy is remembered for practicing dhammaraja, the embodying of a paternal spirit and a close proximity to its subjects.

Such an influence was perhaps inevitable, considering the fact that the Siamese and the Khmers had been living side by side, albeit not amiably, for at least a century.

Indeed, his very identity was surrounded with an aura of the supernatural. The royal Siamese court was literally enveloped in a rigid system of court etiquette, elaborate protocol, and byzantine hierarchy. In short, the Ayutthayan Siamese king was wholly transcendent and remote from his subjects.

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The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was founded by U Thong, better known by the name given to him at his crowning, Ramathibodi I. So also, the king was regarded as nothing less than the incarnate preserver and maintainer of his realm. According to the Thai army, the fighting erupted after dawn and continued for over half an hour. Four Thai and three Cambodian soldiers were reported killed and eight Thai and six Cambodian soldiers were reported wounded. A Cambodian defence ministry statement accused Thai aircraft of entering Cambodian airspace.

The statement also said Thai forces had fired and mm shells loaded with poisonous gas into Cambodia's territory, an allegation that could not be independently verified and that Thailand rejected. A Cambodian field commander claimed that the "poison smoke" caused several soldiers who inhaled it to lose strength in their arms and legs. Tawatchai Samutsakorn, commander of Thailand's 2nd Army Region, denied absolutely that cluster bombs or poison gas had been employed.

Tawatchai said one Thai soldier died, bringing the two-day casualty toll to four dead and 17 wounded, and that 15, civilians had been evacuated from the area of fighting. Cambodia's Suos Sothea said three soldiers from his country had been killed, bringing Cambodia's two-day death toll to six. On 26 April the fighting resumed for a fifth day. The fighting had now spread to a nearby temple.

Cambodian spokesman Phay Siphan said that "We will abide by the ceasefire from now on and local commanders will meet regularly to avoid misunderstanding". However, there were no casualties. The death toll had reached 17, including: Ninety-five Thais, including 50 soldiers, and 18 Cambodian servicemen had been wounded since the start of the fighting. Prawit Hukaew, the two sides had engaged each other with automatic weapons overnight Sunday.

According to Thailand, no Thai troops was killed in the clashes. He claimed the presence of troops in the area was a violation of the memorandum of understanding between Thailand and Cambodia. A "provisional demilitarized zone" would make Thai troops leave positions they have long occupied and Cambodia's to leave the temple's immediate vicinity. Both sides said they were satisfied with the decision.

Thai Foreign Minister Kasit, speaking outside the court, said that a withdrawal of armed Cambodians from the temple complex "has been our consistent position. Cambodian Foreign Minister Hor Namhong said a demilitarised zone would mean "a permanent cease-fire He also said he was satisfied with the dispatch of truce observers, which he said Cambodia had been seeking since last February, but made no reference to the demand for Cambodian troops to abandon the temple grounds.

The court said its ruling would not prejudice any final ruling on where the border in the area between Thailand and Cambodia should fall. It could take the court many months or even years to reach that decision. And therefore it depends on the two sides to come together and talk," he said, suggesting that an existing joint border committee would be the appropriate place to plan a coordinated pullback. A local military commander stated that the soldier's death was a result of clashes provoked by Thai troops.

Pok Sophal, a commander for Oddar Meanchey's Trapaing Prasat district, stated that, "We had an appointment for the meeting [between the two sides], and when we were walking, they opened fire at our soldiers". Thai spokesman Phay Siphan stated that the government was investigating the incident, but dismissed claims of armed clashes.

Cambodian premier Hun Sen led his side to a 10—7 victory, following which he announced that "the nightmare era" between Thailand and Cambodia was over. The armed clash erupted at No injuries or deaths were reported. The source said the Cambodian soldiers opened fire to prevent the Thai helicopter entering Cambodia and that the Thai soldiers responded with heavy gunfire.

It was the first armed clash since Thailand's new government was formed in August. The Court therefore concludes that the first operative paragraph of the Judgment determined that Cambodia had sovereignty over the whole territory of the promontory of Preah Vihear, as defined in paragraph 98 of the present Judgment, and that, in consequence, the second operative paragraph required Thailand to withdraw from that territory the Thai military or police forces, or other guards or keepers, that were stationed there.

There were also fears of renewed clashes amid rising nationalist rhetoric. As a direct result, primary schools, a local hospital, and four or five houses were destroyed. Despite this, one civilian was killed and at least 34 were injured in the rocket attack. The Cambodian government blamed the Thai army for firing onto the World Heritage temple, causing severe damage, whereas the Cambodian army settled the site as an army base.

There is evidence, such as video and photo footage from Reuters, [] showing that Cambodian forces used the temple as a military base and fired machine guns and artillery. Thai soldiers responded by firing rifles at the Cambodian soldiers hiding in the temple. Thailand at first denied the allegation, but later admitted it had fired the weapons.

According to the Cluster Munition Coalition, thousands of Cambodian villagers are now at risk of death or serious injury because of unexploded ordnance near their homes.