Pale Rider - Wikipedia
The Bengal tiger is a Panthera tigris tigris population in the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as . The heaviest wild tiger was disputably a huge male killed in by David .. power to a water pump; another tigress was found dead in Kanha Tiger In December , a tiger was shot by the Kerala Forest Department on a. Our study on the latter three big cats is less exhaustive than that on the tiger and This ability of metabolizing energy as well as the traces of hormones in urine, MF, .. s the idea of pheromonal communication in the world of tigers was met .. ). More pertinent to our theme is the role of pheromones in territorial . BIG MEET RETURNS TO LIDKÖPING JULY Monday, January 1, The Biggest American show comes back to Lidköping, Sweden July
The aloneness an isolation of death and loss are hauntingly personified in these two scenes. The separation and isolation build in the movie and come to a sharp point before pivoting in a Native American ceremony with Wolf Tatanka Means and his father Willie Ortiz Russell Means, Tatanka's real-life father.
The ceremony teaches us that no one is left alone in this universe and that it is vital that we are not alone as we are social beings. Wolf's father says "if a person feels disconnected, he or she might fail.
Blume's books are dense. She packs in many different facets of the young adult experience. The movie adaptation of Tiger Eyes is no different. Tinbergen raised four questions of ethology in his book The Study of Instinct: In the following sections we will attempt to address some of the questions raised by him with respect to our findings on big cats.
Animal behavior is not explainable by fossil records. Nonetheless, Rasmussen indulges in interesting speculations. On the basis of an old report on rock engravings by Pocock Rasmussenshe suggests that the temporal gland in mammoths was larger in size that that of the Asian elephant. It is possible that in mammoths both males and females utilized this as a source of pheromones. But today it is a major pheromonal source in the male Asian elephant only.
Here we face many problems, some of which are hard nuts to crack. Social signals are diverse; besides visible and auditory signaling, chemical signals olfactory signals play an important role in the world of many animals including mammals. These could be urine, feces, glandular secretions, and so forth.
Whereas a visual or auditory signal is functional only during the physical presence of the animal, a chemical olfactory signal persists even in its absence. Brahmachary pointed out how such signals might convey information on species specificity, sexual status, and so forth, and Wyatt lists more information such as on age, health, and fear. Penn calls such signals an extended phenotype, being inspired by a famous book Dawkins We will return to this theme in the context of big cats.
Maynard and Harper divided signals into two categories, assessment and conventional. Sometimes these signals are misleading e. As we will see, in the big cats the major pheromonal signal is based on metabolic expenditure, namely the loss of a large amount of lipids, presence of hormones, or derivatives thereof in urine and marking fluid MF see Section This ability of metabolizing energy as well as the traces of hormones in urine, MF, and so forth can claim to be honest signals, as we will describe later.
The difference between hormone and pheromone is generally clear. However, a comparative study on heterosexual and homosexual men and heterosexual and lesbian women by Berglund et al. He reported that two compounds, progesterone derivative 4,androstadienone AND and estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5 10 ,tetraenol EST induce sex-specific effects on the autonomic nervous system, mood, and context-dependent sexual arousal.
Therefore, we feel it is unnecessary to take recourse to hair-splitting while defining terminologies. So, semiochemicals include all signals in our biological context; it may be the mRNA, a signal from DNA, an osmic smelly chemical signal emitted by an animal that excites another animal of the same species pheromone or alerts the prey, or the smell of the prey can betray it to the advantage of the predator. The last two cases have been described as allelochemicals by Nordlund and Lewis and are subdivided into two other classes—kairomones and allomones.
However, these two terms were well defined by Claesson and Silverstein and in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates IPlenum Press, London and we feel the term allelochemical might lead to confusion for this is well known in modern Botanical literature as the classes of substances emitted through root exudates or material leaching out of leaves shed on ground and affecting the growth of plants of the same or other species.
We, therefore, are of the opinion that the terms pheromone, allomone, and kairomone are sufficient to describe the relevant issues. The interim period between stimulus and the response may vary; action can be instantaneous or delayed depending on orientation of stimuli, gradual accumulation of information, or controlled response with the influence of environment.
Stimulus of smelling the young triggers the final letdown of milk from a lactating mother, although prior growth of the mammary gland is accelerated by the cumulative arousal action of the pregnant female by grooming or licking the nipples in rodents Manning and Dawkins Ewert and Trand correlated the selective responsiveness to key stimuli at a behavioral level with the underlying neurobehavioral mechanism.
In other words, the strength of responsiveness or motivation to the stimuli depends on various internal and external factors of the receiving animal. In our view, when interindividual communication takes place within the same sex to reduce direct confrontation with rivals, it is beneficial to the sender but not to the receiver. On the other hand, communication between the opposite sex is beneficial for both individuals.
However, the latter aspect will not be treated because our focus is on intraspecific communication through pheromones. Chemical communication as a sex attractant or warning signal in the context of territorial connotations necessarily includes a self—nonself distinction i.
Wyatt emphasizes this aspect as well as that of kin or clan recognition as distinct from pheromones, but it would be less complicated to retain the term pheromone and interpret it in a wider context. Territory may be permanent or temporary and a territory holder is perhaps dominant over an intruder. Most territories and home ranges can be more clearly understood in the description by earlier authors as mentioned below.
More data has been furnished later. Many hunters in the past talked of tiger beats rather like the beat areas of police officers. When a tiger was killed, very soon its particular niche was filled up by another. Uxkuell used two words, Heim and Heimat, both of which in German have the connotation of home.
The Saint Meets the Tiger - Wikipedia
Taking this cue, ecologists and ethologists later on introduced two terms, territory and home range. A territory may be defined as that part of home range which is actively defended Burtif need be, by fighting. In the s and s Hediger clearly propounded the idea that animals reserve separate sections of their home range for specific, different purposes, such as sleeping, resting, defecating, and wallowing Hediger Only some part s of the home range are actively defended but signals with agonistic connotation such as roaring or the olfactory cues based on fresh pheromones minimize the chances of an all-out fight.
However, in other parts of the home range the presence of others is tolerated or even encouraged. Barnett mentioned four kinds of factors for confinement of an animal in its territory: We feel the first factor structural barrier is an exceptional case. Also, the difference between 3 and 4 is not clear-cut.
For demarcation of territory, animals use optical, acoustic, olfactory, and chemical cues or a combination of these so that other conspecific members can recognize it in several ways. Anderson classified territories under different categories: In a natural or stable environment, territorial behavior, though diverse, entails an orderly and often peaceful spacing out of the population so that most individuals can carry out essential functions like searching for food, prospective mates, raising young, and so forth without much overt aggression.
Thus in the tiger and lion territorial behavior is linked with breeding and raising offspring Locke ; Schaller ; Schaller Unknown Spray In about a century and a half of numerous blood sport literature, the behavior pattern of the tiger, originally called the unknown spray and now known as scent marking, was conspicuous by its absence.
Even stalwart oldtimers like CorbettJames Inglisand Dunbar Brander apparently never noticed this now so familiar phenomenon today it is well known that tigers, lions, leopards, etc.
Schaller unearthed a single reference, that of Locke The fluid is expelled upwards and backwards with surprising force.
The spot which the tiger has chosen for this purpose can easily be recognized by the odour. Traces of the fluid may also sometimes be found on surrounding vegetation including the undersides of the leaves on low hanging boughs. But he saw only the male tiger spraying. InSchaller in Kanha, India, noticed a tigress raising her tail and spraying a fluid through the urinary channel upward and backward and later he observed this behavior a few more times. Schaller was toying with a theory that this spray might encode certain information to be decoded by other tigers Schallerpersonal communication.
One day inSchaller and one of us RLB noticed a long file of spotted deer pausing and smelling the leaves of a stunted Butea monosperma tree that was apparently sprayed by the resident tigress Brahmacharypersonal field diary. InSchaller first brought this spray to the notice of scientists through his book Schaller At a later date, while watching a tame tigress in a jungle in Orissa, India, 52 sprays were noticed in a single day Brahmacharyunpublished personal field diary and hundreds of sprayings were subsequently observed in a very large compound where the tigress had a free run.
Much of this data was documented by S. Choudhury, who had been studying this tiger from cubhood Figure Some of this data was published posthumously [ Choudhury ]. Around the s many naturalists and even casual tourists in Indian National Parks became familiar with the spray of tigers.
Photo courtesy of Mr. The tiger indeed employs this fluid for attracting mates and staking a claim on its hunting territory. Actually, unlike the tomcat, the female known as the queensprays very infrequently.
In these species the female rarely marks, generally only during the onset of the estrous stage, but the tigress marks very frequently, almost rivaling the male as we will see later. Of the other members of the cat family the female serval sprays frequently personal communication from staff at Moholoholo, South Africa, in Comparative ethology of spraying MF has been studied in the tiger and lion.
In the African lion Schaller noticed that the direction of the spray varies rather widely, upward and backward, horizontally backward, and simply downward without assuming the squatting posture adopted during urination. In the Asiatic lion Brahmachary et al. In the tiger the direction is more fixed—almost always upward and backward Brahmachary et al.
Barja and Miguel observed Siberian tigers P. They reported what they consider to be significant differences in the marking behavior of the tiger and lion, namely that the frequency of marking occurs more in the tiger while the marking duration act occurs more in the lion.
The tiger shows seasonal variation in marking patterns whereas the lion does not. They also correlated many environmental factors in addition to their reproductive physiology seasonal polyestrous versus annual polyestrous. Such extrapolations from a European zoo to the natural conditions of Siberia and Barbary of Africa are difficult. Moreover, the now-extinct Barbary lion was an unusual race of the African lion.
Primary Source of Feline Pheromone From Anal Gland or from the Urinary Tract? A Confusion Lasting Over Decades Descriptions of the scent-marking behavioral trait have been confusing. In the relevant literature we note a number of different terms like marking, urine marking, urine spraying, scent marking, spraying marking fluid, or simply spraying.
Schaller and then again while studying the MF of the African lion Schaller wrongly asserted that the spray is a mixture of urine and anal gland secretion and this error was repeated ad nauseum. It was repeated by McDougal and in many other publications Albone Ewercast doubt on this but even as late as in the mistake persisted Thapar There is, anatomically, no connecting link between the urinary tract and the anal gland of the tiger Hashimoto et al.
The same must be valid for other big cats. The differences between anal gland secretion and spray fluid were evident on comparing the activities of a striped Indian hyena and a tigress Choudhury and Brahmacharyunpublished.
That hyena ejects anal gland secretion is very well known in the African spotted hyena Mills et al. The male tiger can reverse its penis and even the female can spray upward, though at a lower angle. Asa marked anal sac secretions of various felids with an inert dye and found no mixing of anal secretion and urine.
But the confusion continued until Andersen and Vulpius pointed out that it had finally been laid to rest by Brahmachary and Dutta Up to they too had been confused Brahmachary and Dutta The chemical contents of the anal gland of the Asiatic lion turned out to be different from the spray fluid Brahmachary and Singhthus suggesting different sources.
Therefore, the spray of big cats ejected upward has been referred to as MF by our group. Tigers appear to have arrived in Sri Lanka during a pluvial period, during which sea levels were depressed, evidently prior to the last glacial maximum about 20, years ago. Latter habitat once covered a huge swath of grassland, riverine and moist semi-deciduous forests along the major river system of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plainsbut has now been largely converted to agricultural land or severely degraded.
Tiger densities in these TCUs are high, in part because of the extraordinary biomass of ungulate prey. The population in the Indian Sundarbans is estimated as 70 tigers in total.
The TCUs in tropical moist deciduous forest are probably some of the most productive habitats for tigers and their prey, and include Kaziranga - MeghalayaKanha - PenchSimlipal and Indravati Tiger Reserves.
The TCUs in tropical moist evergreen forests represent the less common tiger habitats, being largely limited to the upland areas and wetter parts of the Western Ghatsand include the tiger reserves of PeriyarKalakad-MundathuraiBandipur and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary.
Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population was estimated at 1, individuals ranging from 1, to 1, adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1. Across India, six landscape complexes were surveyed that host tigers and have the potential to be connected. These landscapes comprise the following: Sinceafforestation has continued on a small scale in newly accreted lands and islands of the Sundarbans.
The average of these six sites provided an estimate of 3. This survey measures changes in the frequency of tiger track sets along the sides of tidal waterways as an index of relative tiger abundance across the Sundarbans landscape.
Female home ranges, recorded using Global Positioning System collars, were some of the smallest recorded for tigers, indicating that the Bangladesh Sundarbans could have one of the highest densities and largest populations of tigers anywhere in the world.
Information is lacking on many aspects of Sundarbans tiger ecology, including relative abundance, population status, spatial dynamics, habitat selection, life history characteristics, taxonomy, genetics, and disease. There is also no monitoring program in place to track changes in the tiger population over time, and therefore no way of measuring the response of the population to conservation activities or threats.
Most studies have focused on the tiger-human conflict in the area, but two studies in the Sundarbans East Wildlife sanctuary documented habitat-use patterns of tigers, and abundances of tiger prey, and another study investigated tiger parasite load. Some major threats to tigers have been identified. The tigers living in the Sundarbans are threatened by habitat destruction, prey depletion, highly aggressive and rampant intraspecific competitiontiger-human conflict, and direct tiger loss. As ofan estimated breeding tigers lived in Nepal.
The country's tiger population was estimated at — breeding adults comprising — tigers in the Chitwan-Parsa protected areas, 48—62 in the Bardia- Banke National Parks and 13—21 in the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve.
The male was recorded scent-marking, and the female can also be seen to be lactating, confirming that the pair are living within their own territory, and strongly suggesting they are breeding at that altitude. Adult animals congregate only temporarily when special conditions permit, such as plenty supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the forest and grassland animals, upon which they prey.
Resident adults of either sex maintain home ranges, confining their movements to definite habitats within which they satisfy their needs and those of their cubs, which includes prey, water and shelter.
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In this site, they also maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other's movements and activities. Four females stayed closer to their mother's home range than 10 males. Latter dispersed between 9. Included in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a subadult tigress. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them.
Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighboring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable.
The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies.
There are more places for resident females than for resident males. One of the resident females left her territory to one of her female offspring and took over an adjoining area by displacing another female; and a displaced female managed to re-establish herself in a neighboring territory made vacant by the death of the resident.
Of 11 resident females, 7 were still alive at the end of the study period, 2 disappeared after losing their territories to rivals, and 2 died. The initial loss of two resident males and subsequent take over of their home ranges by new males caused social instability for two years.
Of 4 resident males, 1 was still alive and 3 were displaced by rivals. Five litters of cubs were killed by infanticide, 2 litters died because they were too young to fend for themselves when their mothers died.