Berlin - Wikipedia
Die Berliner Philharmoniker online: Konzertkalender, Ticketverkauf, Musiker, Geschichte, Education, Aufnahmen, Digital Concert Hall. Kinder Der Raver + Acid Aftershowparty AUS DEM FESTSAAL KREUZBERG INS ASTRA VERLEGT. BEREITS GEKAUFTE TICKETS BEHALTEN IHRE. Five reasons to meet up in Geneva in Together is a powerful . What you should know about gift-giving in the German workplace. From football . The trip back home that helped me put my Berlin woes into perspective. FOR MEMBERS .
The Congress was solicited by Russia's rivals, particularly Austria-Hungary and Britain, and it was hosted in by Otto von Bismarck.
It proposed and ratified the Treaty of Berlin. The congress revised or eliminated 18 of the 29 articles in the Treaty of San Stefano. Furthermore, by using as a foundation the Treaties of Paris and Washingtonthe treaty rearranged the East.
Other powers' fear of Russian influence[ edit ] Ethnic composition map of the Balkans by the German-English cartographer Ernst Georg Ravenstein of The principal mission of the participants at the congress was to deal a fatal blow to the burgeoning movement of pan-Slavism. The movement caused serious concern in Berlin and even more so in Vienna, which was afraid that the repressed Slavic nationalities would revolt against the Habsburgs.
The British and the French governments were nervous about both the diminishing influence of the Ottoman Empire and the cultural expansion of Russian to the south, where both Britain and France were poised to colonise Egypt and Palestine. By the Treaty of San Stefano, the Russians, led by Chancellor Alexander Gorchakovhad managed to create in a Bulgaria an autonomous principality, under the nominal rule of the Ottoman Empire. The new principality, including a very large portion of Macedonia and with access to the Aegean Seacould easily threaten the Dardanelle Straitswhich separate the Black Sea from the Mediterranean Sea.
The arrangement was not acceptable to the British, which considered the entire Mediterranean to be a British sphere of influence and saw any Russian attempt to gain access there as a grave threat to British power. On 4 June, before the Congress opened on 13 June, Prime Minister Lord Beaconsfield had already concluded the Cyprus Conventiona secret alliance with the Ottomans against Russia in which Britain was allowed to occupy the strategically-placed island of Cyprus.
The agreement predetermined Beaconsfield's position during the Congress and led him to issue threats to unleash a war against Russia if it did not comply with Ottoman demands. They were able to persuade other European leaders that a free and independent Bulgaria would greatly improve the security risks posed by a disintegrating Ottoman Empire.
According to historian Erich EyckBismarck supported Russia's position that "Turkish rule over a Christian community Bulgaria was an anachronism which undoubtedly gave rise to insurrection and bloodshed and should therefore be ended". Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano red stripes and the superseding Treaty of Berlin solid red Bismarck's ultimate goal during the Congress of Berlin was not to upset Germany's status on the international platform.
He did not wish to disrupt the League of the Three Emperors by choosing between Russia and Austria as an ally. During the division, Russia began to feel cheated even though it eventually gained independence for Bulgaria.
Problems in the alliances in Europe before the First World War were thus noticeable. One reason that Bismarck was able to mediate the various tensions at the Congress of Berlin was his diplomatic persona. He sought peace and stability when international affairs did not pertain to Germany directly.
Since he viewed the current situation in Europe as favourable for Germany, any conflicts between the major European powers that were threatening the status quo was against German interests. Also, at the Congress of Berlin, "Germany could not look for any advantage from the crisis" that had occurred in the Balkans in That claim enabled him to preside over the negotiations with a keen eye for foul play.
Though most of Europe went into the Congress expecting a diplomatic show, much like the Congress of Viennathey were to be sadly disappointed. Bismarck, unhappy to be conducting the Congress in the heat of the summer, had a short temper and a low tolerance for malarky. Thus, any grandstanding was cut short by the testy German chancellor.
The ambassadors from the small Balkan territories whose fate was being decided were barely even allowed to attend the diplomatic meetings, which were between mainly the representatives of the great powers. Until then, as Germany had become too powerful for isolation, his policy was to maintain the League of the Three Emperors.
Now that he could no longer rely on Russia's alliance, he began to form relations with as many potential enemies as possible. The Berlin CityTourCard : The Berlin WelcomeCard available in 10 different versions: You can order the Berlin WelcomeCard in various sales points berlin airports, main station, Hotels or online.
Free travel guide in pocket book format with insider tips and tour suggestions as well as city map for Berlin and Potsdam and a Network plan for public transport included. You can order the Berlin WelcomeCard all inclusive online and at every Tourist information poin Berlin airports, Central station.
A folded leaflet with inner city map and an overview of the S-Bahn and U-Bahn railway networks of Berlin is included. There is also a Monatskarte which is good for a month - either a calendar month e. March or a 30 day card e. May 15 to June At the airport information booth near the baggage claim exit they will direct you outside where there is a ticket booth and you can buy whatever card you want. For the months card it costs 77 euros for zone AB. You are given a little transparent plastic folder to keep it in dates are on the card and you show it only when asked.
On the bus you show it to the driver. Small group day ticket AB: If you are traveling more than two trips a day, this ticket is cost-effective for three persons and above.
Purchasing tickets[ edit ] All tickets are available at vending machines at U- and S-Bahn platforms. English and other European languages are available. Payment is mostly by local bank cards, coins and banknotes. VISA and MasterCard are accepted if you buy your tickets from a manned ticket counter or some ticket machines at Tegel airport. Ticket machines may not take banknotes bigger than 10 euros.
If you need assistance most larger stations have staffed ticket counters where you can ask questions and buy tickets. Also, stores which flag a yellow sign with the writing "BVG" sell tickets, but rarely accept credit cards issued abroad.
Single tickets and day tickets can be bought from bus drivers. Buses will accept cash, and make change for tickets. Hotels may sell tickets as well.
The transport authority BVG offers personalized printout tickets, which can be ordered online and printed at home. This option applies for all types of tickets which are valid for one day or more.
Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin - Wikipedia
They are only valid for the person whose name has to be stated when ordering, and which is printed on the ticket. That person has to be able to show an "official photo identity card ID Card, drivers license or passport " together with the ticket. The first day of validity has to be indicated when ordering. Printout ticket need no further validation at the validator machines.
Furthermore, BVG offers smartphone apps which allow the purchase of tickets, also single tickets, by smartphone after registration. Beware that the validity of those tickets starts only two minutes after the purchase, to prevent people from quickly purchasing an online ticket when, but only when, an inspector shows up. Be aware that you can go only one direction with a single-journey ticket check the validation stamp and be careful as this could also be a pickpocket trick.
As cases of ticket forgery are not rare, and fraudsters focus on tourists who cannot recognize the difference between an original and a forged ticket, it is recommended not to buy tickets from non-authorized dealers, as this could lead to unpleasant investigations commencing when found with such a ticket in an inspection.
Validating tickets[ edit ] You need to validate your paper ticket using the machines on the U- and S-bahn platforms or in the bus. Validation simply means the machine prints a time stamp onto the ticket.
Once validated, a ticket which is still valid will not have to be re-validated before each single trip. Unlike other metro systems, the Berlin U- and S-Bahn systems rely on honesty.
You can not pay for a ticket, and get on a train. However, whilst it might be tempting to try to avoid buying a ticket, be advised that plain-clothed inspectors do patrol the trains frequently. They will stand at the front of the car and ask everyone to pull out their tickets for inspection. That fine is legally construed as a contractual supplemented transport fee, and not as a criminal sanction, which allows the transport authorities to collect those fees at many jurisdictions abroad - and this is actually being implemented.
Such fines have successfully been collected in the United Kingdom and in the United States together with additional lawyers' and courts' fees. By train [ edit ] If you need to get around the city quickly, take the S-Bahn. Especially the Ringbahn that goes all around Berlin in a circle lets you get to other parts of the city really fast.
If you're looking for the way, use BVG. You can simply enter departure address and arrival adress to see the optimum connection, it's an excellent service. Long distance trains mostly run to Hauptbahnhof, often with one or two extra stops at other stations.
All U-Bahn stations now have electronic signs that give the time of the next train, and its direction based on sensors along the lines. Detailed maps can be found in every U-Bahn station and on the trains. Don't be confused by the alternative tram maps.
U-Bahn stations can be seen from far by their big, friendly blue U signs. Together with the S-Bahn which is administered by Deutsche Bahn and mostly runs abovegroundthe U-Bahn provides a transportation network throughout greater Berlin that is extremely efficient and fast.
On weekend Friday to Sundayas well as during the Christmas and New Year holidays, all U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines except line U4 run all night, so returning from late night outings is easy, especially given the average start time of most 'parties' in Berlin 11PM to 1AM. During the week there is no U-Bahn or S-Bahn service from appr. If you don't have a ticket already, you can buy one inside the tram. Two types of tram service are available. Metrotrams frequent more often as well as by night.
Tram routes not so identified stop more frequently and may even include picturesque single-track rides through forested areas far east of the Mitte district.
- Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin
- Checkpoint Charlie
- East Germany
By bus [ edit ] Although buses are the slowest form of public transport, the yellow double-decker buses are part of Berlin's transit landscape and they will take you to almost anywhere in Berlin.
Besides the normal metro buses, there are also express buses indicated by an Xbut these don't halt at every stop. Tourist route - busline The most famous bus line, especially for tourists, is bus route orwhich leaves from Zoo Station "Berlin Zoologischer Garten" or, if you want to go the other way round, Alexanderplatz.
This crosses most of historic Berlin, including many of the sites listed here. For the price of a city bus ticket or daily pass, it's possible to see many of the landmarks of Berlin from one of these yellow double-decker buses.
Sit up top as it's easier to see the Bundestag, as well as the many historic buildings on Unter den Linden. If you're lucky, you'll get the legendary bus-driver who delivers a commentary in Berlin-accented German on the trip.
Line takes nearly the same route, but it goes through the modern quarters around Kulturforum Philharmonie, museums and Potsdamer Platz. Either ride is a must for any visitor to Berlin. By bike[ edit ] Cycling is another great way to tour Berlin.
Berlin has no steep hills and offers many bicycle paths Radwege throughout the city although not all are very smooth. Bicycles are a very popular method of transport among Berlin residents, and there is almost always a certain level of bicycle traffic. Seeing Berlin by bicycle is unquestionably a great way to acquaint the traveller with the big tourist sites, and the little sprees and side streets as well.
Although it's good to carry your own map, you can also always check your location at any U-Bahn station and many bus stops. You can create your own bicycling maps onlineoptimized by less busy routes or fewer traffic lights or your favourite surface.
Even if you are a tourist, be careful of other tourists in very "touristy" areas. Many of them do not know the concept of bicycle paths Radwege. Once they stay in your way, do not expect them to understand that they have to move, or what a bicycle bell ring might mean, and rather plan for a workaround. Ask fellow tourists to stay clear of marked bicycle paths for their own safety. In general, get acquainted with the basic rules of the road, but do not necessarily expect everyone else to act according to them.
Particular attention should be given to motor vehicles on your left which are about to turn right. In addition, the Deutsche Bahn DB placed many public bicycles throughout the city in In they have been changed to a station-based system, where you can sign up using a credit card and unlock bicycles, to be checked into any station within the city. If you are not familiar with searching your own way through the city or you want more explanation of the sights you visit, you can get guided bike tours with bike included on Berlin Bike.
Alternatively, there is a bicycle sharing site that allows users to pay whatever they can to rent out bikes for as long as they wish - BikeSurfBerlin.
Berlin Crisis of 1961
There are lots of bike paths and drivers know to look for bicycles. Museums[ edit ] Berlin is a huge cityso all individual listings should be moved to the appropriate district articlesand this section should contain a brief overview. Please help to move listings if you are familiar with this city. Bode-Museum is part of the Museumsinsel Berlin has a vast array of museums.
Children under 18 years free. Most museums are closed on Mondays; notable exceptions include the Neues Museum and the Deutsches Historisches Museum which are open daily. Museumsportal Berlina collective web initiative, offers easy access to information on all museums, memorials, castles and collections and on current and upcoming exhibitions. A short list of important museums for a more detailed list check the district articles are: It consists of excavated prison cells located directly under a remaining stretch of the Berlin Wall.
I am authorized to state that it is necessary to avoid actions of this kind. Such actions can provoke corresponding actions from our side.Edward Maya & Vika Jigulina - Stereo Love (Official Music Video)
We have tanks too. We hate the idea of carrying out such actions, and are sure that you will re-examine your course. Hemsing again approached the zonal boundary in a diplomatic vehicle. But Clay did not know how the Soviets would respond, so just in case, he had sent tanks with an infantry battalion to the nearby Tempelhof airfield.
Congress of Berlin
To everyone's relief the same routine was played out as before. Curiously, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev claimed in his memoirs that as he understood it, the American tanks had seen the Soviet tanks coming and retreated. As one of the first to spot the tanks when they arrived, Lieutenant Vern Pike was ordered to verify whether they were indeed Soviet tanks. He and tank driver Sam McCart drove over to East Berlin, where Pike took advantage of a temporary absence of any soldiers near the tanks to climb into one of them.
He came out with definitive evidence that the tanks were Soviet, including a Red Army newspaper. The US tanks turned back towards the checkpoint, stopping an equal distance from it on the American side of the boundary. From 27 October at As per standing orders, both groups of tanks were loaded with live munitions.
Both groups of tanks had orders to fire if fired upon. It was at this point that US Secretary of State Dean Rusk conveyed to General Lucius Clay, the US commanding officer in Berlin, that "We had long since decided that Berlin is not a vital interest which would warrant determined recourse to force to protect and sustain.
His views, and corresponding evidence that the Soviets may have backed down following this action, support a more critical assessment of Kennedy's decisions during the crisis and his willingness to accept the Wall as the best solution. Kennedy offered to go easy over Berlin in the future in return for the Soviets removing their tanks first. Kennedy stated concerning the Wall: One by one the tanks withdrew.