SIKH DIASPORA CL (Global Diasporas) - PDF Free Download
Sukhminder S. Hansra @Hansra_SS 12 May More. Copy link to Tweet manreet kaur sidhu @reetsidhuxx 5 Jun More. Copy link to Tweet. I am especially indebted to Ranjit Singh Hansra, Kuldip Singh, and Jawala Singh They built the first gurdwara at Kilindini in (Kaur ). Sir Harry Johnson, who had met some of these Sikhs, observed: Reserve soldiers of the In it carried a photo of the Sikh volunteers who joined the Dharam Yudh . Feb 20, Explore Lina's board "most handsome AFRIDI" on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Shahid khan, Shahid afridi and Boom boom.
The Sikh identity is rooted in a religious tradition of the Khalsa Panth, which subsumes social, cultural, political and territorial identities. Sikh identity is not based on an abstract creed, but discrete elements of history, myths and memories, intertwined within the region of Punjab. Sikhs, literally the learners, trace their ancestry to ten gurus; the first of them was Nanak —born near Lahore in a Hindu family.
By compiling a book of sacred scriptures infifth guru Arjan placed it at the centre of the Harimandir, a temple by a pool in Amritsar. By the time of Aurangzeb, a zealot Mogul ruler, keen on conversion, the ninth guru was beheaded in Delhi in The tenth and last guru, Gobind, was born into this conflict. He built a fort in a hilly area far from Amritsar, at Anandpur. After fighting many battles with Mogul authority, he tried a settlement with the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah, but was assassinated in The value system of the Khalsa was to be egalitarian, with collective and spiritual authority vested in the Guru Granth, and it was inspired to wage a just struggle against domination.
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It was reserved for Nanak to perceive the true principles of reform, and to lay those broad foundations which enabled his successor Gobind to fire the minds of his countrymen with a new nationality. The eighteenth century became a period of suffering, martyrdom and resistance against the Mogul tyranny. Ahmad Shah Abdali, the Afghan ruler, pursued them in two major battles, killing 5, in followed by a second battle in when Sikhs were defeated almost to a man; the two battles are remembered as ghallugharas holocausts.
During the century some new traditions were invented, and an annual gathering at Amritsar by Sikh chiefs became the Sarbat Khalsa, the supreme body, where through gurmatas and hukamanamas differ ences were resolved and collective tasks set. His liberal monarchy patronized many Hindu, Muslim and Sikh historic shrines; the latter were controlled by Udasis, descendants of the first guru3 Banga As befitted a Sikh sovereign, he granted lavish expenditure for the Harimandir.
First, a mutiny by Purbia sepoys in prompted retired Sikh chiefs and soldiers to join the British in quelling the rebellion.
By the First World War, Sikhs constituted a third of the armed forces and Punjab provided three-fifths of army recruits. It introduced issues of language and scripts, social identity issues for social groups and castes, and for the newly educated Punjabi elite, a discovery of its past, translating its cultural ethos into the modern idioms.
As each community established schools and colleges, the common language Punjabi was abandoned. Sanskrit and Hindi were adopted as the medium of instruction by Hindus, Muslims adopted Urdu, and Punjabi became the exclusive language of Sikhs. This set up a competing spirit of religious revivalism among the urban elite, producing sharp ethnic boundaries, and the embittered atmosphere often led to communal conflict and violence.
The comparatively rich urban Hindus were infused with the aggressively proselytizing social movement of the Arya Samaj preached by Dayanand, a Hindu reformist from Gujarat. Through various Singh Sabhas, the first of which was established inthe Sikh reformists took up the challenge.
The Sikh reformers reacted by attempting to weed out all remnants of Hindu practices from the Sikh faith, inventing new rituals and ceremonies for various uses. The ceremonies of the Golden Temple naturally attracted their first fury in Oberoi The reformers, many from lower social classes, challenged the Udasi managers, popularly known as mahants custodianswho would not allow untouchables to worship at the Golden Temple, contrary to Sikh principles.
The Chief Khalsa Diwan, a major organization at the turn of the century, sought patronage through its loyalist stance. From the s, imperial polity was opening up its governance for greater representation of its subjects. Encompassing a coalition of Muslims, Sikhs and Hindu rural leaders, the Unionist Party formed a government, a unique consociational experiment involving three religious communities. Its leaders were committed to strong Punjabi nationality.
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The Punjabi elections, held in the shadow of imperial withdrawal, gave the Muslim League an overwhelming mandate, paving the way towards partition Talbot When talks with the Muslim League proved fruitless, the Sikh leaders put their trust in the Congress leadership of Gandhi and Nehru, appealing for fairness. The partition On 15 August two new countries, India and Pakistan, came into being. The boundary line cut through the heartland of the Sikh population,9 accompanied by ethnic cleansing of horrific proportions; communal riots claimed the lives of half a million people Randhawa A total of 12 million people crossed over the new border; Sikhs and Hindus moved out of west Punjab, while almost all of the Muslim community of east Punjab migrated to Pakistan.
Through interethnic elite competition, they had clearly demarcated themselves as a separate community, with historic shrines controlled by a representative body, and rituals and ceremonies sharply distinguished from their parent society of Hindus. Colonial rule also witnessed a vigorous creativity by Sikh writers in the Punjabi language.
The partition of Punjab was an immediate blow, with the loss of fertile lands and sacred shrines, but the tragedy also brought Sikhs into a compact geographical unit, where they could perhaps protect their language, culture and religious traditions. The distinguishing feature of imperial power was that it neither needed nor visualized a unified centralized state, a vision which the new nationalist leaders adopted, typified by the Nehruvian approach to state building.
Imperial authority was much concerned with representation of various religious and cultural communities; its administrators harboured a somewhat natural sympathy for minorities and indigenous peoples and tribes. Under the postcolonial state Even with partition into India and Pakistan, the British left behind an empire consisting of semiautonomous regions, especially in India.
The regions were princely states with a variety of political systems and they included two Sikh states. Within loose borders they contained many tribes, religious minorities with distinct cultures and languages, and they were joined only by railways, roads and rudimentary communications. In independent India, the Congress leaders, as inheritors of power, had set themselves a daunting task of moulding an empire into a modern state. The immediate question of obtaining accession of princely states was resolved through a judicious dose of coercion and persuasion; however, in Kashmir and some northeastern states this policy led to violent confrontation.
India adopted a unitary constitutional structure with a universal franchise, scrapping the colonial system of weighting representation for minorities and reservation of seats, except for scheduled tribes and castes.
Instead, it provided for the reorganization of linguistic regions and recognized 14 languages as state languages.
Hindi was adopted as the official language of India along with English. By the s, the Indian union consisted of 22 states, with 15 official languages. In the Indian Punjab, Sikhs constituted a majority in six districts, in another five they formed a large minority. The test of democracy, in the opinion of the Shiromani Akali Dal, is that the minorities should feel that they are really free and equal partners in the destiny of their country…to bring home this sense of freedom to the Sikhs it is vital that there should be a [province of] Punjabi-speaking language and culture…it is a question of life and death for the Sikhs for a new Punjab to be created immediately.
The increasingly desperate shelter needs are unprecedented in scale. Thousands of earthquake survivors live in squalor and are desperate and lining up for stable shelter. We are coordinating our efforts with various other United Nations teams. Besides distributing langgar we are also helping emergency shelter relief, community building, education, and job training efforts. Several such places in Haiti need a new building and facility, where people sleep on the floor in a small room.
The sites served survivors who lost family members and homes in the earthquake.
People passionately shared their stories and routinely told of the loss of family and relatives with moist eyes. The sangat that was present during that meeting was notified that: Punia reportedly apologized to everyone for taking this unilateral step.
Some of the directors complained that Avtar Singh Punia was trying to protect Shivteg by making unilateral decisions without their knowledge. They complained such decisions can only be made with full consultation with all the Gurdwara directors in a formal meeting.
When this meeting occurred, Shivteg had already fled from the Gurdwara premises, and his acquaintance Amandeep Kaur had also packed up her luggage and left. The Dhadi Jatha, consisting of two other bibis and a sarangi master continued to stay at the Gurdwara premises for many days after Shivteg and Amandeep Kaur had left.
Hansra and Sandhawalia failed to mention any of this information in their tabloids. Sarangi master Bhupinder Singh also shared with Panthic.
In a shameless and desperate attempt they have even tried to frame the sevadars who himself witnessed the illicit rendezvous between Shivteg and Amandeep Kaur. The allegations framed on them were concocted by the pro-Shivteg lobby.
No individuals were named in the actual press release, but it is evident that the two individuals that were dismissed from the Gurdwara premises were none other than Kathakar Shivteg Singh and the orator of the Dhadhi jatha, Bibi Amandeep Kaur.
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Interestingly, the names of individuals of Gurdwara sewadars being tarnished by Hansra and Sandhaywalia were never involved in any wrongdoing or dismissed from the Gurdwara Sahib, yet certain elements continue spew accusations against them.
Her handwritten letter was printed by the pro-heretical writer Kirpal Bathinda who himself is clueless about what actually transpired between those two individuals at the Ontario Khalsa Darbar.