Responsible Conduct of Research: Animal Research | Division of Research
health promotion, healthy aging, horses, human–animal interaction, hu- man health, pet Despite the call for more research after the meeting, a workshop held on this subject 20 Mars Petcare, Global Scientific Affairs, McLean, VA, USA. © McCune protocols and measures; incorporation of new technologies; and. Sep 18, Disclosure: Asha McLean travelled to D61+ LIVE as a guest of Data61 WWF spotlights the tech that is conserving the planet (TechRepublic). Cherish has 2 children, Bryce and Caden; 2 dogs, Dharma and Razor; 1 cat, Pita; and 1 horse, Moxley. Geraldine's favorite part of working the front desk is getting to meet all the puppies and Tiffany received her Associate's Degree in Veterinary Technology from Northern . If you are human, leave this field blank.
He then operated his own large animal practice where he treated dairy cattle, horses, llama, pigs and goats. As the number of family farms started to dwindle, he made a career switch to companion animals. The Reeds also have four grown children. When not practicing veterinary medicine, Dr.
Reed enjoys riding bicycles, woodworking and keeping bees. Mclean Associate Veterinarian Dr. As an only child, he always had cats and dogs growing up as companions, sort of like surrogates for siblings.
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While working on his Eagle Scout merit badge prerequisite, he mentored at a local animal hospital. With that experience, combined with his love for animals, he realized veterinary medicine would be an ideal career choice.
He then attended NC State and earned a B. McLean has been practicing companion animal medicine and surgery exclusively for over 25 years. He recently returned home from practicing in Henderson, North Carolina to attend to his elderly parents.
He currently resides in Lowesville. He is the proud father to three children: He is also a proud grandpa to his grandson, Trenton.
It is probable that in the not-so-distant future, intense sampling of movements coupled with detailed information on habitat features at a variety of scales will allow us to represent an animal's cognitive map of its environment, and the intimate relationship between behaviour and fitness. An extended use of these data over long periods of time and over large spatial scales can provide robust inferences for complex, multi-factorial phenomena, such as meta-analyses of the effects of climate change on animal behaviour and distribution.
Such technological milestones included Galileo and Kepler designing and looking into telescopes, finding evidence for Copernicanism and falsifying the Tolemaic system ; Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek peering into microscopes and describing cells, thus laying the basis for modern microbiology; Sanger and Maxam and Gilbert developing DNA sequencing, which spawned molecular biology; and high-speed computers fostering the emergence of nonlinear dynamics.
In this Theme Issue we herald an exciting synergy between animal ecology and global positioning system GPS -based radiotelemetry. New telemetry technology allows us to monitor and to map the details of animal movement, securing vast quantities of such data even for highly cryptic organisms.
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Conceptual advances have been made with roots in Lagrangian characterization of the details of movement by individual animals, which ultimately leads to Eulerian characterization of population process. Recent theory uses stochastic movement models to challenge our mechanistic understanding of home range and dispersal. We are beginning to tackle the complexities of memory and perception, and how these behavioural processes yield the individual variation that is so pervasive in nature.
It is probable that in the not-so-distant future, intense sampling of movements coupled with detailed information on habitat features at a variety of scales will allow us to represent an animal's cognitive map of its environment. Models of resource selection by animals give us fundamental insights into the mechanisms behind the distribution and abundance of organisms. Indeed, this powerful synergy between science and technology is rapidly shaping the very structure of the discipline of ecology.
In animal ecology, reality is observed at approximately the same space—time scale as an observer's experience. Direct human observations cannot provide thorough and standard data that will allow falsification of ecological hypotheses for all animals and all kinds of research questions.
The most logical step is moving the point of observation from the observer to the observed i. For example, to quantify accurately where animals go, using technology to let animals show us where they are has many advantages.
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Interestingly, marine biology, where boundaries to human senses are apparent, was the first field of animal ecology to use telemetry Boyd et al. Biotelemetry the remote measurement of state variables of individual, free-living animals has been the technological revolution that has allowed the expansion of the mechanistic approach to the ecology of large animals Cooke et al.
Continued technological developments have broadened the potential and definition of bio-telemetry devices to allow sampling of environmental variables around tagged animals Fedak ; Hooker et al.
Among the variables that can be measured for a free-living animal, its position in space allows intuitive and immediate ways to relate the animal to its environment. One could ask what phenotypes adaptations are required to be in a certain place at a certain time.
What are the consequences for being there? Why is the animal there? Those interactions ultimately determine animal fitness Nathan et al. Thus, knowing where animals go is of utmost importance as human activities affect climate and habitat, and thereby challenge the very persistence of species Thomas et al.
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Animal tracking the monitoring and recording of animals' sequential positions initially, and for a long time, relied on VHF very high-frequency technology; that is, animals have been equipped with transmitters emitting at radio frequencies that can be received by radio receivers Craighead A few automated radiotelemetry systems have been developed e.
Therefore, animal tracking has traditionally relied on researchers to be in the field, with the potential to affect animal behaviour Cooke et al. The advent of satellite telemetry allows remote tracking of animal positions and movements. Telemetry using GPS, in particular, has several technical advantages, including the ability to determine position on the surface of the Earth or in the air with high precision and accuracy 24 h a day, with position updates available in rapid succession.
Argos satellites using Doppler-based positioning Tomkiewicz et al. We now can obtain nearly continuous, systematically scheduled datasets of animal positions, though the technology is subject to some serious technical limitations Tomkiewicz et al. The most apparent is the cost of units to be fitted to individual animals.
We expect prices to drop as more researchers use GPS technology, because off-the-shelf devices are subject to free-market forces. Standardization of device functions and data types will help prices to fall as well, and can also be an advantage for comparing among studies and for data sharing in large-scale studies Tomkiewicz et al.
In addition, GPS wildlife telemetry is based on a widespread technology and can take advantage of components developed for other sectors of business, with a huge market. This should assure constant technological improvements and decreased costs, and stimulate attention to a second large limitation: GPS technology was pioneered on large vertebrates, such as elephants Douglas-Hamiltonmoose Rodgers et al. The size of the devices is decreasing, however, and each decrease in size increases the range of animal species for which they are available e.
Recent technological advances have also allowed GPS applications in marine environments Schofield et al. Clearly, the choice of a technical tool for a specific study requires critical evaluation in light of the goals and scope of the study.Unbelievable Friendship! People and Wild Animals - Compilation 2018
Ecologists and managers must evaluate, during the design of a study, the potential advantages and challenges, from data handling to analyses, of using GPS-based technology. Providing a guide to the accomplishment of this task is the reason for this Theme Issue. To make good use of GPS-based location data one must have a measure of device error. Can the potential benefits to human health and welfare justify procedure that may result in discomfort to animals?
Do animals have rights similar to or different from those of humans, which should influence how we understand the ethics of research with animals? Are all animals equal? For example, is experimenting with insects morally equivalent to experimenting with non-human primates?
Do researchers have obligations towards animals under their care and control that they do not have towards wild animals of the same species because of the relationship created by having the animals in their care? Most people who accept animal research believe that researchers have responsibilities towards animal subjects. The most basic responsibility is that experiments must have scientific merit.