BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Classical chamber music
The fully developed classical style in music flourished during the period. A. . D. never met. D. All answers .. Classical chamber music is designed. Often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other . -The most important form in classical chamber music is the string quartet, written . -It is in the slow second movement that we are most likely to find broad, . A secondary school revision resource for GCSE Music about the western classical tradition and chamber music.
He also tried other innovative ensembles, including the quintet for violin, two violas, cello, and horn, K. He wrote six string quintets for two violins, two violas and cello, which explore the rich tenor tones of the violas, adding a new dimension to the string quartet conversation.
Mozart's string quartets are considered the pinnacle of the classical art. The six string quartets that he dedicated to Haydnhis friend and mentor, inspired the elder composer to say to Mozart's father, "I tell you before God as an honest man that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by reputation. He has taste, and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition.
Luigi BoccheriniItalian composer and cellist, wrote nearly a hundred string quartets, and more than one hundred quintets for two violins, viola and two cellos. In this innovative ensemble, later used by SchubertBoccherini gives flashy, virtuosic solos to the principal cello, as a showcase for his own playing.
Chamber music - Wikipedia
Violinist Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and cellist Johann Baptist Wanhalwho both played pickup quartets with Haydn on second violin and Mozart on viola, were popular chamber music composers of the period. From home to hall[ edit ] Copy of a pianoforte from The turn of the 19th century saw dramatic changes in society and in music technology which had far-reaching effects on the way chamber music was composed and played.
Collapse of the aristocratic system[ edit ] Throughout the 18th century, the composer was normally an employee of an aristocrat, and the chamber music he or she composed was for the pleasure of aristocratic players and listeners. Many of Beethoven's quartets were first performed with patron Count Andrey Razumovsky on second violin.
Boccherini composed for the king of Spain. With the decline of the aristocracy and the rise of new social orders throughout Europe, composers increasingly had to make money by selling their compositions and performing concerts. They often gave subscription concerts, which involved renting a hall and collecting the receipts from the performance.
Increasingly, they wrote chamber music not only for rich patrons, but for professional musicians playing for a paying audience. Changes in the structure of stringed instruments[ edit ] At the beginning of the 19th century, luthiers developed new methods of constructing the violinviola and cello that gave these instruments a richer tone, more volume, and more carrying power. The scherzo of the String Quartet No. Robert Schumann —56 represents the best aspects of early Romanticism; these include an interest in tone colourmelodiousness, a free approach to details of form, and subjective expression in which enthusiasm plays a large part.
Twelve chamber-music works reflect those aspects in varying degrees. Three string quartets are melodious, dramatic, brusqueand dreamy in turn. And in all those works his characteristic impulsiveness and tendency to alternate between forthright and moody expression is characteristic. Late Romantic period, c. Of about 30 works of chamber music, nine held an important place in the repertory; these include two string sextets, three quartets, two piano trios, a piano quartet, and a piano quintet.
And the Dumky Trio, Opus 90, contains six dumky a dumka being a Ukranian folk music form with moods alternating between melancholy and wild abandon ; here the element of contrast is stressed to the utmost. Aleksandr Borodin —87in the second of his two quartets, combined traces of Russian nationalism with expressions of pure lyricism. The Piano Trio, Opus 50, is a virtuosic work in two movements—one a lengthy sonata form, and the other a set of brilliant variations—and is primarily elegiac in mood.
It was Johannes Brahms —97however, who dominated the period. Eloquent melodic writing is most characteristic of his earlier works, notably the String Sextet No. The 20th century As in all times of stylistic change, considerable overlapping of styles occurred at the turn of the 20th century.
In chamber music, several composers born in the 19th century carried the modified Late-Romantic style into the 20th. The German Max Reger —with about 36 works, was primarily an exponent of chromatic writing in forms that are derived essentially from the 19th century.
The first step toward the new styles of the 20th century were taken in France by Claude Debussy — ; his one string quartet and three sonatas late works represent the Impressionistic style based on whole-tone harmony, of which he was an exponent.
Somewhat similar are the string quartet and piano trio by Maurice Ravel —with a rich array of tremolos, forms based on repetition of melodic fragments, and many astringent harmonies.
In England, on a different path are a string quartet and piano quintet by Sir Edward Elgar — and two string quartets, a string quintet, and a song cycle On Wenlock Edge: Elgar reveals an intensely personal style; Vaughan Williams uses English folk song, elusive harmonies, and strong rhythms.
The musical styles that have dominated the later 20th century are largely the work of three composers and their respective followers.
A set of 21 short poems for quasi-reciting voice and five instruments, Pierrot Lunairemarked an intermediate stage; and four later works, including the third string quartet, saw the full development of the tone style. In a fourth quartet and a few smaller works the system was carried to completion.
And another Austrian pupil, Anton von Webern —sought to develop utmost refinement and consistency, along with brevity. A string quartet, a quartet for violin, clarinet, saxophone, and piano, and a chamber concerto for nine instruments are the principal works that illustrate his methods of extreme economy in the use of all materials. Coupled with such technical elements are fervent expressiveness and, in the slow movements, great repose. The third principal influence, that of the Russian-born Igor Stravinsky —was felt perhaps less in chamber music than in orchestral, for Stravinsky composed fewer than a dozen works in the field.
An Octet for wind instruments represents a deliberately impersonal style that requires no subjective interpretation on the part of the performers. The German Paul Hindemith —with seven string quartets and more than two dozen sonatas and other works, favoured polyphonic textures, an expanded harmonic scheme, and great rhythmic drive. His style in later works became less dissonant, more lyric, and was characterized by a general lightening of the thick counterpoint that had distinguished his work of the s.
His seven works called Kammermusik are for larger groups and so do not come within the scope of this article. The French composer Darius Milhaudin about 18 string quartets, four quintets for various combinations, and a number of other works, for a time espoused the principles of polytonalitythe device of employing several keys simultaneously.
Characterized by moods that are often pungent, humorous, and even satirical, his works reveal a mixture of dissonant counterpoint, rhythmic flexibility, and graceful expression. His 14th and 15th quartets, independent works in their own right, may be performed simultaneously to form an octet.
Two Russian composers, Sergey Prokofiev — and Dmitry Shostakovichare represented in the repertory by about 20 works adhering, in the main, to the forms and textures of the 19th century. Both men embrace the new harmonic techniques without departing entirely from Romantic expressiveness. Many of their compositions reveal a sense of humour.
The chamber music by American composers has in general reflected the international styles mentioned above. One exception is seen in two quartets, a piano trio, and several violin sonatas by Charles Ives —who maintained a style of great originality through his long lifetime. Another exception may be noted in the work of Ernest Bloch —Swiss by birth, but identified with the United States since about In five string quartets, two piano quintets, and a few smaller works, Bloch brought his Jewish heritage to expression in styles that are robust and varied.
Among the more prominent American composers, a few may be singled out for their notable contributions. Walter Pistonwith four string quartets, a piano trio, a quintet for flute and strings, and a piano quintet, is perhaps the most eclectic; his works are basically Neoclassical and are distinguished by elegance and vitality.
Roger Sessionsrepresented principally by two string quartets and a string quintet, has written in an austerereserved, and strongly dissonant style. Quincy Porter — composed 10 string quartets, several quintets for various combinations, and smaller works; they are characterized by warm expressiveness achieved in textures that employ considerable repetition of short motives.
The works of Roy Harris are distinguished by forms that depart from 19th-century models; three string quartets and a piano quintet are among his most significant works. Aaron Copland may be mentioned for a piano trio ; a sextet for clarinet, piano, and strings; a piano quartet; and a violin sonata. Those works include variously nationalistic allusions including Jewish and Latin Americanunresolved dissonanceand elements of serial style.
Evening coach departure for the Orchestra Hall and 8: Intermission drinks will be included this evening as will a post-performance backstage visit. We then meet in the hotel to transfer to the stunning Frank Gehry designed Weisman Art Museum located on the University of Minnesota campus. We will have an hour long tour and some free time before driving to Orchestra Hall once more for the 4: We drive to attractive Loring Park area for a festive closing dinner with invited guests at Bar Lounge Lurcat.
Following dinner, we return to the hotel and close out our time together in the Twin Cities. April 29, - Departure from Minneapolis Independent departures.