Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women's Suffrage - Wikipedia
Suffragettes were members of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, . The first public meeting on the subject of women's suffrage in UK was held in Manchester's Free Trade Hall in ; one of .. with about 50 police constables and detectives on the stage of St. Andrew's Hall in Glasgow, Scotland. Nov 29, 34 brand new biography articles have now surfaced on Wikipedia about Scotland's suffragettes and the Eagle House suffragettes, along with. This is an example of civil disobedience by the Scottish suffragettes. Scotland, women met together in cafes and offices, and organised musical and dramatic.
The last time the movement was portrayed on screen was on television, with the much-loved Shoulder to Shoulder airing on the BBC in There are great stories there and few of them are told at all. As if to make up for past tardiness in giving women the vote, the House of Commons broke with tradition and allowed Gavron to film there.
While one might think from the film that the suffragette movement was a London affair, Scotland, and London-based Scots, played crucial roles.
Celebrating 100 years of votes for women
There was Marion Wallace Dunlop, descendant of William Wallace, who pioneered the hunger strike as political protest. And there was Keir Hardie, founder of the Labour Party, champion of the cause in Parliament, whose connections to the movement would turn out to be intensely personal. The film opens in Women had been asking for the vote for decades to no avail. Those deeds ranged from marching and chalking pavements, to more serious actions such as burning down a stand at Ayr racecourse and Leuchars Railway Station.
As a contemporary report in The Herald recounts, Rhoda Fleming, 27, of Sauchiehall Street, thereafter attempted to break the car windows. Helen Pankhurst, great-granddaughter of Emmeline and granddaughter of Sylvia, is pleased the film focuses not on her famous relatives, as so much of the history does, but on a fictional footsoldier of the movement.
Suffragette timeline: the long march to votes for women
But I think it would be historically wrong to label this a middle-class thing. Dr Esther Breitenbach, a historian at the University of Edinburgh, believes nobody has yet done the kind of detailed research that would show the movement in Scotland was radically different from elsewhere. Melissa Benn, writer, broadcaster, campaigner, honorary president of The Keir Hardie Society and contributor to the book What Would Keir Hardie Say, says Hardie was drawn to the cause because, quite simply, he believed it was right.
Later, he would see how his wife and daughters, and every other woman, were treated as third-class citizens when it came to the political process. Emmeline had three daughters: Christabel, Sylvia and Adela. Hardie was to become particularly close to Sylvia, and there has been speculation that the relationship went further than friendship.
Benn, the daughter of Tony and Caroline Benn, says: While she is not definitive about them having a sexual relationship they clearly had a very, very close and intimate relationship. I ask Pankhurst what she thinks. There is no doubt that they were incredibly close and that she was very important to him and vice versa.
The accounts of women hunger strikers who were force fed retain the power to shock. The British state, challenged by the campaigners, set out to break some butterflies on a wheel, and did.
- Remembering the Scots at the heart of the suffragette movement
- Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women's Suffrage
- Scottish women's suffrage movement, 1902-1933
She ended up in the notorious Perth Prison, where after three days of force feeding, the wardresses inserted a tube into her rectum. The film conveys well the fury which was directed at the suffragettes by those who opposed their aim. The move to militancy, having split the campaign, might also be a reason for the gap between Shoulder to Shoulder in which Fulton Mackay played Hardie and Sian Phillips was Emmeline Pankhurst and Suffragette.
Has the militancy made it a difficult subject for popular culture to embrace? Arson, bombs, and property damage[ edit ] Throughout the suffragette movement many violent tactics were employed in order to achieve its goals.
Throughout Britain, the contents of letter boxes were set alight or corrosive acids or liquids poured over the letters inside, and shop and office windows were smashed. Telephone wires were cut, and graffiti slogans began appearing on the streets.
Places that wealthy people, typically men, frequented were also burnt and destroyed while unattended so that there was no risk to life, including cricket grounds, golf courses and horse-racing tracks. The first woman to refuse food was Marion Wallace Dunlopa militant suffragette who was sentenced to a month in Holloway for vandalism in July After a hour hunger strike, and for fear of her becoming a martyr,  the Home Secretary Herbert Gladstone decided to release her early on medical grounds.
In MarchRule A was introduced by the Home Secretary Winston Churchillallowing prisoners in Second and Third Divisions to be allowed certain privileges of the First Division, provided they were not convicted of a serious offence, effectively ending hunger strikes for two years. Unwilling to release all the suffragettes refusing food in prison,  in the autumn ofthe authorities began to adopt more drastic measures to manage the hunger-strikers.
In September the Home Office became unwilling to release hunger-striking suffragettes before their sentence was served. Prisons began the practice of force-feeding the hunger strikers through a tube, most commonly via a nostril or stomach tube or a stomach pump.
Despite the practice being deemed safe by medical practitioners for sick patients, it posed health issues for the healthy suffragettes. The act made the hunger strikes legal, in that a suffragette would be temporarily released from prison when their health began to diminish, only to be readmitted when she regained her health to finish her sentence. As suffragettes speaking in public increasingly found themselves the target of violence and attempted assaults, learning jujitsu was a way for women to defend themselves against angry hecklers.
Members of the "Bodyguard" orchestrated the "escapes" of a number of fugitive suffragettes from police surveillance during and early They also participated in several violent actions against the police in defence of their leaders, notably including the "Battle of Glasgow" on March 9,when a group of about 30 Bodyguards brawled with about 50 police constables and detectives on the stage of St.
Andrew's Hall in Glasgow, Scotland. The fight was witnessed by an audience of some people. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement; the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's WSPU calling a ceasefire in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst 's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle.
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societieswhich had always employed "constitutional" methods, continued to lobby during the war years and compromises were worked out between the NUWSS and the coalition government.
The first woman to do so was Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astorfollowing a by-election in November Legacy[ edit ] Nineteen-year-old Fay Hubbard selling suffragette papers in New York, In the autumn of Emmeline Pankhurst had sailed to the US to embark on a lecture tour to publicise the message of the WSPU and to raise money for the treatment of her son, Harry, who was gravely ill.
As in the UK, the suffrage movement in America was divided into two disparate groups with the National American Woman Suffrage Association representing the more militant campaign and the International Women's Suffrage Alliance taking a more cautious and pragmatic approach  Although the publicity surrounding Pankhurst's visit and the militant tactics used by her followers gave a welcome boost to the campaign,  the majority of women in the US preferred the more respected label of "suffragist" to the title "suffragette" adopted by the militants.
However a system of publicity, Ensor argues, had to continue to escalate to maintain its high visibility in the media. The hunger strikes and force-feeding did that. However, the Pankhursts refused any advice and escalated their tactics. They turned to systematic disruption of Liberal Party meetings as well as physical violence in terms of damaging public buildings and arson.
Searle says the methods of the suffragettes did succeed in damaging the Liberal party but failed to advance the cause of women's suffrage. When the Pankhursts decided to stop the militancy at the start of the war, and enthusiastically support the war effort, the movement split and their leadership's role ended.
The role of Scottish women in the suffragette movement
Suffrage did come four years later, but the feminist movement in Britain permanently abandoned the militant tactics that had made the suffragettes famous. A crowd of radicals, former suffragettes, and national dignitaries gathered as former Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin presented the memorial to the public.
In his address, Baldwin declared: Pankhurst has won for herself a niche in the Temple of Fame which will last for all time. Goldstein had visited England in at the behest of the WSPU; her speeches around the country drew huge crowds and her tour was touted as "the biggest thing that has happened in the women movement for sometime in England". The colours have since been adopted by government bodies such as the National Women's Advisory Council and organisations such as Women's Electoral Lobby and other women's services such as domestic violence refuges and are much in evidence each year on International Women's day.