Assiniboine River - Wikipedia
where the Assiniboine River flows into the Red, has a rich history of early Aboriginal of The Forks because of its significance as an Aboriginal meeting place. The Assiniboine River is a 1,kilometre ( mi) river that runs through the prairies of The Assiniboine winds its way east eventually joining the Red River at "The Forks" in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Today, Assiniboine Herald at the Canadian . That first settlement, known as the Red River Colony, was a hub for the fur trade until the s, when grain production became the principal industry in Western .
First Nations have occupied the region for more than ten thousand years. The HBC set up their trading posts along the Hudson Bay, and First Nations people wishing to trade with the Company were obliged travel to these posts.
This situation worked out well, unless you were an employee or shareholder of the HBC. He purchased one-third of HBC shares and negotiated a tract of land, which became the Red River Colony, to serve as a settlement for disenfranchised Scottish men and women.
It was not the best season for farming. Peguis, an Ojibwe chief, gave them shelter over the winter so they would survive. Trading posts were being ambushed, battles were fought at places like Seven Oaks, and trade was suffering. Lord Selkirk attempted to broker a deal with the First Nations, as represented in Figure 3, but this was not honoured by Selkirk.
Peguis attempted to broker peace between the two fur-trading companies. It is important to note that most First Nations people were not included in this census. But things were about to change. One of the first orders of business for the new government was to expand its border and reach the West before other countries — notably the United States — decided to take some territory north of the 49th parallel.
The USA had just recently purchased Alaska from the Russians and had made several proclamations throughout the nineteenth century that Canada would simply become part of its domain. Aware of this, the Canadian government was focused on establishing its territorial control by creating settlements and a transcontinental railroad throughout the western part of North America. This deal was negotiated in the summer of and the land transfer was scheduled for December 1, The inhabitants of Red River were not consulted on this deal.
Before the land transfer took place, John A. Macdonald had been warned by the Catholic Bishop, the Anglican Bishop, and the HBC governor of Assiniboia not to send the surveyors, but this did not deter him. The planting and harvesting of maize was just beginning to spread across North America.
There is very little known about activity at the forks some 60 centuries ago, except for rare discoveries and the knowledge the two rivers were unquestionably the hub of transportation in all directions to and from the heart of the continent. A 3,year-old campsite, for example, produced a stone blade only found in the Texas Panhandle. You can get all the way out to Edmonton by the North Saskatchewan River. Using the Assiniboine, you can go all the way to Calgary.
Going east to the Great Lakes, not a problem. You can go south to the Gulf of Mexico with only two portages.
Archeologists during a dig between and the mids found pottery from Michigan, the Lake of the Woods and Brandon — up to nine different camps in all. Duck Bay vessel Your browser does not support the audio element. Manitoba Museum's Kevin Brownlee describes pre-European contact artifacts found at the forks.
From ancient times until the turn of the 20th century, the forks was a magnet for social, economic and spiritual congress. We have lived off them, been drawn to them, built a city around them. We have been flooded by them, dumped our garbage, sewage and dead bodies in them, become estranged from them and, only in recent years, found ourselves once again embracing them.
Because over those thousands of years, the Red and Assiniboine rivers, along with their tributaries including the Seine and La Salle, have been a constant — mostly stoic, sometimes angry — inhabitants of this place, too.
Patches of ice float down the Assiniboine River. The rivers will flood and the rivers will recede… regardless of what people are doing. But the river will keep flooding. Time flows continuously, and people change. Water flows continuously, and the rivers do not change.
Assiniboine and Red rivers crest in Winnipeg | Grand Forks Herald
In an unforgiving, often brutally cold environment, the junction provided unparalleled transportation options. It was a source of wood where there was precious little on a vast landscape barren of trees. It was a hunting ground for game — most notably bison — and small wildlife that were also attracted, like humans, by shelter, water and prey. It provided an unlimited supply of fish, including monstrous pound sturgeon.
We very quickly get this image of people and their goods circulating extensively around a good portion of North America, and the forks is one of the focal points for that. It was a convention based on historical practice and word of mouth spread between First Nations by indigenous traders who served as liaisons between tribes. The common denominator, as always: You could easily be looking at thousands of people; men, women, dogs.
Probably kind of noisy. How is that any different from us coming together and shopping at some of the craft and produce outlets at The Forks and gorging on mini-doughnuts? There were no permanent structures or settlements. There is no written history, only the oral stories passed down from generation to generation in indigenous communities. Still, Stephen said, the junction contains within its soil an untold wealth of history.
Your browser does not support the audio element. Parks Canada's Scott Stephen describes post-contact artifacts found at the forks.
- Historic Sites of Manitoba
- Assiniboine and Red rivers crest in Winnipeg
- History of Red River & LAA
That was pretty cool. According to Leigh Syms, past associate curator of archeology at the museum, the spearhead — with its symmetrical jagged tip — is actually a portal of sorts back to the days of its origin, and the place where it was so thoughtfully hand-carved. Archeologists are still uncovering evidence, for example, that corn, beans and squash were being planted in Manitoba dating back to AD — centuries sooner than first believed.
These people knew when the fish were spawning. They knew when and where to harvest the prairie turnips. They knew when the blueberries were ripe for picking. They were actively exchanging with one another.
This is not the cultural backwater that people assumed. The idea that technology here was primitive is such a farce. They had a commerce. They had a trade network that expanded across the continent. Especially settlements built on known flood plains. Not mentioning any names. They had figured it out. Nobody in their right mind would do that. As a Cree born in Norway House, but raised in Winnipeg by his adoptive parents, he understands the tension between archeology and aboriginal spirituality, which considers buried bones to be sacred things that should be left untouched.
But those same artifacts, Brownlee contends, can also answer the two questions that are pondered by any culture, during any point in human history: And why am I here?The Forks: Too Good Not To Visit This Winter
Somewhere along the line, that shared history melds together. The Forks, through the ages, has drawn people for a myriad of reasons… Consider: It was also where 30, people gathered on May 16,to fight to keep the original Jets in the city.
Was this the giant one bison that fed a family on the verge of starvation? We cannot excavate that story, but to be mindful of the story on every single artifactevery single shard, every arrowhead, every animal bone.
At the outset of his initial dig, when the redevelopment of the area began in the early s, two elders approached Kroker and told him about a meeting dating back roughly to the 12th century, an oral story passed down through generations.
At the time, there was no written or archeological evidence of such a gathering. It was a few years later when Kroker found several styles of pottery and arrowheads — all believed to emanate from different regions of North America — in the same location. There are theories for the meeting, many of which involve negotiations to end a tribal war. However, with proof of a changing environmental climate at the time, Kroker believes the gathering may have centred around a life-threatening struggle for food.
Both vegetation and herd-migration patterns may have been greatly affected. If you ask Kroker what the scene may have looked like during the peace meeting, he immediately replies: Clearly, the meeting of the Red and Assiniboine practically preordained the meeting of human beings. Like most tourists, they just asked the locals for directions. As the fur trade expanded deep into the West, the traditional reputation and importance of the forks as a gateway and economic weigh station became solidified, regardless of who controlled the industry.
The fur brigades, just as the indigenous inhabitants before them, migrated to the junction like clockwork for decades. The arrival of the fur brigades was probably the biggest social event to have occurred for 30 years. And it happened every summer circa