HISTORY OF THE INCAS
Pizarro, like all other Europeans, had the distinct advantage of firearms over the indigenous population he sought to subjugate. The Inca hadn't been exposed to . Trickery and falsehoods are the words, perhaps the Incas believed in honor. The civil war was raging and the diseasesPizarro himself had brought with him. Pizarro is well aware of how Cortes controlled Mexico through The Inca offers a ransom for his freedom - a room of gold.
And in addition to the actual advantages the gun offered over the spear or the arrow, it also gave the Spaniards a psychological advantage [source: Minnesota State University ]. As in Mexico, psychology played a part in the Andes. It was through this initial trust that Pizarro was able to gain Atahualpa's confidence. He soon captured the ruler and held him for ransom.
Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor - HISTORY
After he was paid, Pizarro retained the ruler rather than release him. He attempted to use him as a puppet dictator, carrying out the Spaniard's will through the Incan emperor's decrees. But Pizarro found this tactic useless; Atahualpa was executed at the hands of his captor. The blood of thousands more loyal to the Incan ruler was shed soon after.
The brutality of the Spaniards had become apparent to the Inca. The conquistador identified tribes who were enemies of the Inca or unhappy with Inca rule, and established alliances with them. Superior weaponry, psychological warfare, a perfectly timed arrival and native allies certainly helped Pizarro.
Soto rode to meet Atahualpa on his horse, an animal that Atahualpa had never seen before.
With one of his young interpreters, Soto read a prepared speech to Atahualpa telling him that they had come as servants of God to teach them the truth about God's word. He replied with what he had heard from his scouts, saying that Pizarro and his men were killing and enslaving countless numbers on the coast. Pizarro denied the report and Atahualpa, with limited information, reluctantly let the matter go. At the end of their meeting, the men agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca.
Pizarro and his men reached that city on 15 November Hernando Pizarro and De Soto explained they were emissaries of Emperor Charles I of Spainto offer their services, and "impart to him the doctrines of the true faith. Atahualpa replied that his fast would end the next day, when he would visit Pizarro.
When De Soto noticed Atahualpa's interest in his horse, he put on a display of "excellent horsemanship" in close proximity. Atahualpa displayed hospitality by serving refreshments. When Atahualpa arrived with about 6, unarmed followers, Friar Vincente de Valverde and Felipillo met them and proceeded to "expound the doctrines of the true faith" and seek his tribute as a vassal of King Charles. The unskilled translator likely contributed to problems in communication.
The friar offered Atahualpa the Bible as the authority of what he had just stated. Atahualpa stated, "I will be no man's tributary. Though the historical accounts relating to these circumstances vary, the true Spanish motives for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience.
The Inca likely did not adequately understand the conquistadors ' demands.
The Conquest of the Inca Empire
The effect was devastating, the shocked Incas offered such feeble resistance that the battle has often been labeled a massacrewith the Inca losing 2, dead. Pizarro also used cavalry charges against the Inca forces, which stunned them in combination with gunfire. This was a major disadvantage for the Inca. Their undoing also resulted from a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings.
The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry " Santiago! Most natives adapted in 'guerrilla fashion' by only shooting at the legs of the conquistadors if they happened to be unarmored.
- How did 168 conquistadors take down the Incan empire?
- The Conquest of the Inca Empire
- Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
According to the Spanish envoy's demands, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room with gold and promised the Spanish twice that amount in silver. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca; he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace.
When Atahualpa was captured at the massacre at Cajamarca, he was treated with respect, allowed his wives to join him, and the Spanish soldiers taught him the game of chess. Francisco Pizzaro sent a similar expedition to Cuzco, bringing back many gold plates from the Temple of the Sun. By FebruaryAlmagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional men with 50 horses.
By 3 May Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested; it was melted, refined, and made into bars. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid.
They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small army to look for the hidden army, but a trial for Atahualpa was held in his absence.
Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion. The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince.
Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish; he was baptized as Francisco. On 29 August Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian. He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito.
Upon de Soto's return, he was furious; he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors. The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance.
Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra.
Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala.
Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor
He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in However, in he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled.
Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city.
The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing. Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete.
Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. Thus the Spanish conquest was achieved through relentless force, and deception, aided by factors like smallpox and a great communication and cultural divide. The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population. Aftermath[ edit ] Pizarro and his followers founding Lima A struggle for power resulted in a long civil war between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in which Almagro was killed.
Almagro's loyal followers and his descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in This was done inside the palace of Francisco Pizarro in a fight to the death by these assassins, most of which were former soldiers of Diego de Almagro who were stripped of title and belongings after his death.
Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Reala type of appellate court. In JanuaryLima was founded, from which the political and administrative institutions were to be organized. Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in The integration of Spanish culture into Peru was carried out not only by Pizarro and his other captains, but also by the many Spanish who also came to Peru to exploit its riches and inhabit its land.
These included many different kinds of immigrants such as Spanish merchants, peasants, artisans, and Spanish women. Another element that the Spanish brought with them were African slaves to work alongside captive Incas for use in labor with things such as agriculture and mining for silver.
The arrival of the Spanish even had effects on the coastal geography of Peru, since the shores were uninhabited after the Incas that previously lived there were either killed or relocated to another area by the Spanish. The unique indigenous road and communications systems were essentially lost. The only things that persisted of the original culture are the very few artifacts that remained and the minute cultural aspects, such as language, that was left behind by the small percentage of Incas who persisted.
While this is the case for every group of Native-Americans that encountered Europeans from the fifteenth century onwards, the Incan population suffered a dramatic and quick decline following contact. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of Old World Eurasian diseases, which had long been endemic on the Continent, were carried unknowingly by colonists and conquistadors.