Blood in stool - Wikipedia
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel . Ulcerative colitis is marked by chronic bloody diarrhea and inflammation mostly affects the distal colon near the rectum. .. "Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens cause diarrhoea". Nature Reviews. Hematochezia is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools (contrast with melena). The term is from Greek αἷμα ("blood") and χέζειν. During a bowel movement, the muscles of the rectal wall contract to move stool from the abdominal tenderness, swelling, or bloating; bloody or dark-red stools .
When amoebae inside the bowel of an infected person are ready to leave the body, they group together and form a shell that surrounds and protects them. This group of amoebae is known as a cyst, which is then passed out of the person's body in the feces and can survive outside the body. If hygiene standards are poor — for example, if the person does not dispose of the feces hygienically — then it can contaminate the surroundings, such as nearby food and water.
If another person then eats or drinks food or water that has been contaminated with feces containing the cyst, that person will also become infected with the amoebae. Amoebic dysentery is particularly common in parts of the world where human feces are used as fertilizer.
After entering the person's body through the mouth, the cyst travels down into the stomach.
Anatomic Problems of the Lower GI Tract | NIDDK
The amoebae inside the cyst are protected from the stomach's digestive acid. From the stomach, the cyst travels to the intestines, where it breaks open and releases the amoebae, causing the infection. The amoebae can burrow into the walls of the intestines and cause small abscesses and ulcers to form. The cycle then begins again.
What Is Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
Bacillary dysentery Dysentery may also be caused by shigellosisan infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella, and is then known as bacillary dysentery or Marlow syndrome. The term bacillary dysentery etymologically might seem to refer to any dysentery caused by any bacilliform bacteria, but its meaning is restricted by convention to Shigella dysentery.
Other bacterial diarrhea[ edit ] Some strains of Escherichia coli cause bloody diarrhea. The typical culprits are enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coliof which O H7 is the best known. Diagnosis[ edit ] A clinical diagnosis may be made by taking a history and doing a brief examination. Treatment is usually started without or before confirmation by laboratory analysis.
Physical exam[ edit ] The mouth, skin, and lips may appear dry due to dehydration. Lower abdominal tenderness may also be present. Usually, several samples must be obtained due to the number of amoebae, which changes daily. If this treatment cannot be adequately maintained due to vomiting or the profuseness of diarrhea, hospital admission may be required for intravenous fluid replacement.
In ideal situations, no antimicrobial therapy should be administered until microbiological microscopy and culture studies have established the specific infection involved. When laboratory services are not available, it may be necessary to administer a combination of drugs, including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasiteand an antibiotic to treat any associated bacterial infection.
If shigellosis is suspected and it is not too severe, letting it run its course may be reasonable — usually less than a week. However, many strains of Shigella are becoming resistant to common antibiotics, and effective medications are often in short supply in developing countries. If necessary, a doctor may have to reserve antibiotics for those at highest risk for death, including young children, people over 50, and anyone suffering from dehydration or malnutrition. Amoebic dysentery is often treated with two antimicrobial drugs such as metronidazole and paromomycin or iodoquinol.
Prognosis[ edit ] With correct treatment, most cases of amoebic and bacterial dysentery subside within 10 days, and most individuals achieve a full recovery within two to four weeks after beginning proper treatment. If the disease is left untreated, the prognosis varies with the immune status of the individual patient and the severity of disease.
Extreme dehydration can delay recovery and significantly raises the risk for serious complications. From a health advisory pamphlet given to soldiers.
He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. Additional methods of looking for occult blood are being explored, including transferrin dipstick  and stool cytology.
Gastrointestinal blood loss[ edit ] In healthy people about 0. Tests for occult blood identify lesser blood loss. Thus the FIT test is much more specific for bleeding from the colon or lower gastrointestinal tract than alternatives. Moderately sensitive gFOBT can pick up a daily blood loss of about 10 ml about two teaspoonfulsand higher sensitivity gFOBT can pick up lesser amounts, requires at least 2 ml.
Further discussion of sensitivity and specificity issues that relate particularly to the guaiac method is found in the stool guaiac test article.
Fecal porphyrin quantification by HemoQuant can yield a false positive result due to exogenous blood and various porphyrins. HemoQuant is the most sensitive test for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and therefore may be most appropriate fecal occult blood test to use in the evaluation of iron deficiency  Advised to stop red meat and aspirin for three days prior to specimen collection  False positives can occur with myoglobin, catalase, or protohemes  and in certain types of porphyria.
Archived from the original PDF on A systematic review and economic evaluation". Observation of esophageal lesions with the use of endoscopic dyes. Progress of Digestive Endoscopy. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. Screening for colorectal cancer: Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.