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Surely, Congress could not have possibly intended to deny the Circuit Criminal Courts such constitutional prerogative, which is jo of the basic constitutional right of an individual whose person cannot be legally seized without prior preliminary examination by a judge.

Esta convencion, creo, se habra fijado que en dicha Orden General Num. The amendment was intended to be a remedy for the evils pointed out in the debates, caused by the issuance of search warrants, many of which were in blank, upon mere affidavits on facts most of which were generally found afterwards to be false” Aruego, Framing of the Philippine Constitution, Vol.

Jurisdiction of the court, however, is determined not only by nature of the offense charged in the information, but also by ,ey penalty imposable thereto.

The reference to Republic Act is even more revealing of the insistence of the majority to cling to any drifting straw in their effort to noo their point. In compliance therewith, respondent Judge filed a petition for admission of answer on November 29, pp.

Grubbs Special School Let. III, Constitution, Emphasis supplied. See 4 Moran, Rules of Court, p.

Ley Nº 27406 – Modifica la Ley Nº 27037, Ley de promoción de la inversión en la Amazonía.

In other words, Section 1 of Republic Act does not grant the circuit criminal courts jurisdiction “in” or “over” the cases listed, but, as may be plainly seen in the above-quoted tenor of its pertinent provision, only “the limited jurisdiction.

Indeed, the legislature is presumed to know the existing laws; so that, if a repeal is intended, the proper step is to so express it with specificity Continental Insurance Co. While sustaining this power, the Court laid down the policy that judges of the criminal courts should concentrate on hearing and deciding criminal cases filed before their courts and should not encumber themselves with the preliminary examination and investigation of criminal complaints, which they should refer to the municipal judge or provincial or city fiscal, who in turn can utilize the assistance of the state prosecutor to conduct such preliminary examination and investigation.

Consonant with the need to make of the Circuit Criminal Courts the courts of special and limited jurisdiction designed to attend with utmost expeditiousness to the case assigned to them, as undoubtedly the law intends to be, Section 1 of the Act should be construed, even in case of doubt, in the sense not only that the jurisdiction of said courts is limited to the cases which they may take cognizance of, but also in that any other work not strictly part of the functions to “try and decide” said cases, is not contemplated to be performed by them.

The Judge of the Court of First Instance conducts only the first stage, that leu, preliminary examination for purposes of the issuance of the warrant of arrest, to be followed by the actual trial Marcos, v. Even then, however he should for sound policy reasons, curb any eagerness or propensity to make use of such competence.


The determination of this “probable cause” is the sole object of preliminary examination and investigation by Sections 13 and 14 Rule of the Revised Rules of Court. The main opinion holds that it “is plain and evident from Sections 3 and 6 of their organic act, Republic Act ” that circuit criminal courts “have the same powers and functions as those conferred upon regular Courts of First Instance necessary to effectively exercise their special and limited jurisdiction.

The silence of the pertinent provisions of the Judiciary Act on the matter, taken together with the fact that Section 99 of the same Act repeals all laws and rules inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, indicates an unmistakable legislative intention to remove from the Court of First Instance the prerogative under discussion.

And so, the question in my mind is simply this, assuming arguendo that circuit criminal courts have all the powers of the regular courts of first instance, which I dispute, is it clear that the latter courts continued to possess, after the Judiciary Act of went into effect, the power to conduct preliminary investigations?

L, L, L and L p. But more commendable would be for judges to contribute their share in maintaining the unswerving faith of litigants in the courts of justice.

It is patent that respondent Judge knew actually of the existence at least of the report of seizure of June 30,which is six days prior to his order of dismissal dated July 6, And this Court has been very restrictive in construing this particular grant of jurisdiction. Cruz, supra; People v. Este articulo leyy, dice lo siguiente: Jurisdiction of the Circuit Criminal Court. The mention of “the preliminary investigation being conducted by a judge” in the above provision contemplates, to my mind, not the judges of the courts specified therein, but the proper municipal judges, bearing in mind the considerations already discussed above relative to the tendency of the every new law to remove from superior courts the power to conduct preliminary investigations.

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Back to Home Back to Main. For instance, in the Judiciary Act itself, it can be clearly seen that in the case of Actseventy-five years ago, the legislature had to expressly vest upon inferior courts, thru Section 87 of the Act the power to conduct such preliminary investigations.

This provision was a reiteration of the previous election laws Act No. Such being the case, the applicable rule of statutory construction is that to the effect that when scattered statutes and provisions relative to the same subject matter are embodied subsequently in a single comprehensive legislation, any particular provision incorporated therein and germane to the main subject matter is deemed to be repealed.

Surely, such military order cannot in any sense be deemed to be a mandate of constitutional stature. I did not concede that the authority was broadly “over” those cases, as in Section 44 of Judiciary Act, but strictly “to take cognizance of, try and decide” them. This grant obviously is leu of the provincial or city ,ey or other government prosecutors whose power to conduct preliminary investigation in all other cases is affirmed in first clause of Section 5 thereof.


But the Constitution empowers the National to grant the power to issue search warrants or warrants of arrest after conducting the necessary preliminary examination to “other responsible officer. But then the question would arise, from where did our municipal mayors derive their authority under existing rules to perform such function? Lachica, 2 SCRA As heretofore intimated, the present practice or rule of court authorizing the judge to issue warrants of arrest based on the preliminary investigation conducted by the city fiscal, seems violate the Constitution, which requires the judge himself to conduct the preliminary examination.

The term “judge” employed in both Constitutions cannot be so limited to “municipal judge” as to exclude the judges of the Court of First Instance and Circuit Criminal Court People v. Circuit Criminal Courts are of limited jurisdiction, only because they cannot try and decide all criminal cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Courts of First Instance as courts of general jurisdiction.

Private respondent, on the other hand, through the Citizens Legal Assistance Office of the Department of Justice, filed his 277037 on February 20,maintaining that respondent Judge has jurisdiction to conduct preliminary investigation, invoking particularly Section 13, Rule of the Revised Rules of Court in relation to Sections 1, 3 and 6 of Republic Act No. Unless inconsistent with the provision of this Act, the Circuit Criminal Courts shall have the same powers as those conferred by the Judiciary Act and the Rules of Court upon regular Courts of First Instance, insofar as may be necessary to carry their jurisdiction into effect.

I contend, however, that such pose overlooks the fact that the Judiciary Act of is indisputably in the nature of a codification of all laws existing at the time of its passage related to the judiciary, the judges, the courts and their respective jurisdictions.

I believe it is safer to hold that jurisdiction to act on leyy given matter may be granted only by statute or lley enactment, for the simple reason that jurisdiction is substantive and not adjective in nature. The legislature never intended to confer upon Circuit Criminal Courts the power to conduct preliminary investigations. My knowledge, if limited, of the origin of the competence of judges to issue warrants of arrest is to the effect that it is a prerogative that antedates both the and the Constitutions.

Justice Montemayor in the Amarga case, supra, that the Constitution merely guarantees against unreasonable searches but not against unreasonable arrests, despite the fact that the constitutional guarantee expressly affirms “the right of the people to be secure in their persons.

L is set aside as null and void insofar as the same dismissed the criminal case 72037 prejudice and insofar leu it directed the return to private respondent of the articles seized from him which are the subject of seizure proceedings before customs authorities and the writ of preliminary injunction issued therein made permanent.