Holden Furber; The English Utilitarians and India. By Eric Stokes. (New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xvi, $), The American Historical Rev. OTHER REVIEWS. Jacobinism. He has also demonstrated the permanent damage to its prestige suffered by the upper house in when it became a. utilitarianism on Indian education: K. A. Ballhatchet suggests that it was exerted in India, not London, while Eric Stokes doubts that it was a significant factor even .

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WeUesley was sufficiently proud of this despatch to have it pubhshed in London in x8ii see India Office Library Tracts, vol. If the new British Empire were to be a dominion not over territory but over the wants of the universe, it followed that it was more important to civilize than subdue.

Admittedly this connexion was not free from embarrassment. Both Methodists and Evangelicals concentrated, therefore, on securing a minimum standard of education as a pre- requisite lor englsih, at least sufficient for a person to read and understand the Bible. The Indian Government, he asserted, must drop the ridiculous pose of protecting the weaker Indian com- munity from the stronger and more energetic Europeans. Gk vernment conducted from the office, rather than from the tent and the saddle, necessarily proceeded by forms and precedents ; and when its functions were kept confined to the operation of courts of justice and to the mere realization of the revenue, its criterion of success thr similarly limited to superficialities — to the speed with which judicial business was dispatched, and the volume and promptitude of revenue payments.

The natives will not rise against us, we shall stoop to raise them; there will be no reaction, because there will be no pressure; the national activity will be fully and harmlessly employed in acquiring and diffusing European knowledge, and in naturalising European institutions.

Nothing could keep them right stokee detailed questions of policy, he said, but accustoming their minds to dwell upon the character of British power in India, and that of the empire over which It was established. Some surprise may be occasioned by the small figure which John Stuart Mill makes in these pages, despite the thirty-five years he spent as an official at the India House.


But it was not this aspect which excited him most deeply. And it was brought to bear — it is this which makes Indian history important for the most insular of English historians — by its most distinguished representatives, James and John Stuart Mill, Bentham and Macaulay.

It was not merely wasteful, many hands performing what could be done by one, but it could not be made accountable. Both agreed in many general aims. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Yet their very presence betokened a change in the character of government, however long its effects might be delayed. And it is significant that the new generation should be known as the Manchester School.

The English Utilitarians And India by Eric Stokes

Yet their spirit was far from revolutionary. With Munro there was the same intellectual eagerness, continuing far into life and prompting him at the age of sixty to go painstakingly through Ricardo.

To prepare it for the knowledge of Chris- tian truth, It had first to be cleared of error and superstition, and education recommended itself for reasons of prudence. If inspectability were to be achieved, then the tsokes of inspection and control had to be kept entirely separate from that of actual execution.

This division was utilitariwns to be per- manent. The ‘second wave in the gathering tide of anglicization came with Cornwallis, the Governor-General from to Hume, Bentham, and Mill.

Refresh and try again. And while it might, provide an oracular authority for arguments against the Corn Laws and in favour of free trade, it seemed to take perverse delight in destroying those confident prejudices won which the new middle-class optimism was founded.

In its largest sense their solution was that of education. With respect to India they had a deep vested interest in the existing order.


The English Utilitarians And India

The whole transformation of English mind and society, as it expressed itself in liberalism, was brought to bear on the Indian con- nexion. A few pages of history give more insight into the human mind, in a more agreeable manner, than all the metaphysical volumes that ever were pub- lished. All other measures were secon- dary and comparatively unimportant. From motives of expediency the Company had always manifested the most scrupulous regard for Indian religions, laws, institutions, and customs.

It meant using law in a revolutionary way, consciously employing it as a weapon to transform Indian society by breaking up the customary, communal tenures.

One of the chief objects of the scheme, was to reduce the complexities of Indian land tenures to the simple relations of landlord qnd tenant, so that Euro- peans syokes purchase land in freehold, and individual energy and capital might be applied to Indian agriculture by Indians themselves.

If this course be adopted, there will, properly speaking, be no separation. Political education determined directly the moral forces acting upon the indi- vidual. After years of public controversy, a utilitarian measure of freedom was won for missionary enterprise in the Charter Act ofand an Indian Church with a bishop and three archdeacons was established. The institution of the Supreme Court, exercising the. Admittedly, trade brought about an international division of labour and so increased the mass and variety of commodities, but it was not the life-blood of the nation as the manufacturing and commercial classes chose to argue.

P,voL vni. His historical judgement taught him that all forms of government were transitory and superficial, and stokess at the mercy of deeper, irresistible forces which impelled human society. Ethics in Value Theory, Miscellaneous categorize this paper. At present the British were in every way different from their Indian subjects, in language, manners, customs, sentiments, religion.