Eritrea country profile - BBC News
Authorities deposed the patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Church inappointing a successor one year later. The deposed patriarch remains under house arrest over 10 years later. Security personnel raid private homes where adherents of unrecognized religions meet for prayers, arresting and detaining them.
Those arrested are only released after repudiating their religious affiliations. Three arrested 22 years ago, infor refusing military service remain imprisoned. Currency Confiscation In latethe government ordered all paper currency held by citizens be turned in to government banks within six weeks. European countries continue to attempt to stem the flow of asylum seekers and migrants from Eritrea. In May, Sudan expelled over Eritrean refugees and asylum seekers to Eritrea.
Most were promptly incarcerated according to CoI witnesses.
World Report Eritrea | Human Rights Watch
Israel for years has refused to allow Eritreans to apply for asylum. In September, an appeals court held that Eritreans must be given individualized hearings, overruling an Interior Ministry policy that from national service evasion or desertion can never be justification for asylum.
After a bloody border war inEthiopia occupies slivers of territory identified by an international boundary commission as Eritrean, including the town of Badme where the war began. On Juneborder clashes, including artillery fire, erupted near Tsorona, a village just inside Eritrea.
President Isaias blamed Ethiopia for the attack but there are conflicting reports of the cause, including that fighting began when armed Eritrean troops chased fleeing conscripts into Ethiopian territory and that Ethiopia responded to an attack by an Eritrea-based rebel group.
Also in March, Eritrea released four Djibouti prisoners-of-war captured in a border conflict in Eritrea had never before acknowledged holding POWs even after two escaped in Djibouti claims Eritrea still holds a dozen more. The group said Eritrea may have violated the embargo by arming and training anti-Ethiopia and anti-Djibouti militias, using mining income and UAE payments for military purposes, and attempting to buy military equipment in Europe.
Their advancement in the workplace is also hampered by their generally lower educational levels. Thus, women are generally found in administrative support roles, or technical roles such as accounting or health services. The highlands are largely orthodox Christian, while the lowlands are inhabited primarily by Muslims.
Officially, there are equal numbers of Christians and Muslims in Eritrea it is difficult to know the actual numbers. The EPLF liberation movement made a conscious effort to overcome religious differences and form a decidedly secular liberation movement. However, there are still underlying tensions between the Christian highlanders and Muslims from the lowlands.
This serves as a basic cultural and ethnic divide in the country, with the Christian population largely occupying the most powerful positions. Nevertheless, there is considerable religious tolerance for the major religions. There is less tolerance for some of the smaller Protestant Christian denominations, with many of these churches having been deregistered. The government seeks to restrict Christian and Muslim activities to pastoral and religious activities, separate from social service, development and political activities.
This religious dimension plays little role in the day-to-day workplace. The larger Eritrean identity has been successfully established. Unless one takes an interest in their lives outside of the workplace, one can work with colleagues without ever encountering their religious identity.
The social and work structure respect hierarchy.
Eritrean society permits social movement within the hierarchy based on education and ability. There does not appear to be a set class structure that is rigidly maintained. There are nine formally recognized ethnic groups in Eritrea, with the Tigrinya being the most numerous and dominant.
The Tigrinya live in the highlands and are generally Orthodox Christian. The other groups are primarily Islamic and often live or have their origins in the lowlands. The major languages spoken are Tigrinya and Arabic, with English being increasingly spoken in the major centres. Some of the older people still speak Italian. Ethnicity continues to play an important role in social life, but the ruling party has made major efforts to transcend ethnic cleavages.
The EPLF liberation movement that led the country to independence built a movement that joined peoples from the various ethnic groups and religions into one united movement. The EPLF pushed aside other liberation movements that were more ethnically and religiously based. Cultural Information - Relationship-building Question: How important is it to establish a personal relationship with a colleague or client before getting to business?
It helps a lot and things go better where there is friendship and trust. In Eritrean society, the norm is chat and exchange niceties before delving into more serious business. People always want to have a win-win situation and part amicably so they can resume another round of negotiation until a mutual agreement is reached. The saying goes, "it is better to have a bad marriage than a divorce". It is possible in Eritrea to engage in professional and business dealings without developing a personal relationship first.
Direct discussions of the issues at stake are possible in a spirit of mutual respect. There may even be a preference for engaging in this direct manner if negotiations are required. However, there is also considerable opportunity to develop personal relationships with colleagues and clients.
Eritreans are open to the development of friendships. Showing and interest in cultural or sporting events and attending these together is another way to build friendships.
Accepting invitations to weddings is important. Eritreans are pleased to share their culture and lives with others. When entering a room, even if a meeting is in progress, it is important to greet everyone before engaging in business discussions.
Cultural Information - Privileges and Favouritism Question: Would a colleague or employee expect special privileges or considerations given our personal relationship or friendship Local Perspective: An individual will not come and ask you for a salary increase or a favour but as in most cultures, depending on the relationship and the level of comfort, it is not uncommon for someone to ask for a favour to hire a friend or relative.
No pressure or pushing the envelope is involved; it is all subtle and gentle. The only problem may be that it may become a nuisance if they keep pestering you, thinking you are the expatriate with a lot of influence.
Why Ethiopia, Eritrea skirmish is unlikely to spiral into another war
A common practice that I have seen is that if an employee dies or is disabled, his wife, son or daughter could be hired. This has a big positive impact for the family and the morale of the rest of the personnel. I never experienced any pressure to provide special favours to persons in the workplace based on personal friendship, other than the normal kindness and support one would extend to any friend eg: Outside of the work environment, if one asks for assistance in hiring domestic help, or locating certain technical services such as an electrician or plumber, people with links to the family are often recommended.
Cultural Information - Conflicts in the Workplace Question: I have a work-related problem with a colleague. Do I confront him or her directly? It is not hard to decipher if a colleague is having a problem or an issue with you. Body language and facial expressions will be enough to indicate that something is not right.
You will be able to detect a change of attitude in the manner or the way he responds when you greet him. In such circumstances, find out if the grievance or grudge is work-related or not. If the issue seems universal, raise the issue with everyone through a meeting or the bulletin board.
If it is not work-related, you should meet the person outside the office and confront the person. This is quite a good tool and is encouraged by the Eritrean legal system. In the Eritrean tradition, an independent conciliatory body that both parties accept and trust may be appointed to settle the issue right away.
Work related problems are best dealt with privately, not publicly. This would be regarded as overstepping your boundaries. As an outsider, one needs to make the necessary accommodations to colleagues if one wants to be effective, particularly supervisors and managers.
You can very easily be sidelined and rendered ineffective by seeking to force change on others, by being perceived as requiring Eritreans to act in the way you think they should act. Eritreans are extremely proud and very resistant to outside pressure.
Demanding your rights or respect is rarely successful. What motivates my local colleagues to perform well on the job? Stability, prestige, benefits and good pay are some of the factors that play a big role in boosting motivation and performance of local colleagues at work. Most Eritreans take pride in their work and strive to excel.
Positive reinforcement for work well done is important. Being critical of performance is not generally helpful.
Rather, one should share ways to improve performance using non-judgmental technical advice. There is a strong commitment to rebuilding the country following the liberation war and the recent conflict with Ethiopia. Efforts to improve performance built around this rebuilding ethic are positively received, as long as they are not presented as criticism. Showing excitement about what can be done is useful.
Comparing performance to other countries or people is often counter-productive.
To help me learn more about the local culture splease recommend: Before setting your foot in Eritrea you could learn about the culture by visiting some of the Eritrean web sites such as the Eritrean Embassy in Washington. These sites will give you general information about the land and its people and what to expect while there. Depending on where you are in Canada, you can get in touch at least in the major cities in Canada with Eritreans and Eritrean Community offices or Eritrean restaurants, where you can drop in and learn the culture, see the diversity, taste their food and ask questions.
Messenger International attention has once again been drawn to the fraught relationship between Ethiopia and Eritrea. It is possible that the June 12 incident was triggered by any of these movements.
It seems the Ethiopian military acted in an unusually robust way, given the recent claim by Ethiopia that Eritrea trained a militant group that infiltrated southern Ethiopia with the aim of committing terrorist acts. Tens of thousands from both sides died when the two countries went to war between and Full of confidence after winning the liberation war just a few years earlier, the Eritrean military nursed ambitions to exert power in the region. Thus, in May and June Eritrea started the war by forcefully occupying border areas — some contested, others not.
Will this latest skirmish spiral into a full-fledged war? Many of the real causes of the war have diminished significantly in relevance owing to developments in each country and the passage of time.Mimi Sebhatu on Ethiopia and Eritrea Relations - TPLF - EPLF - (አነጋጋሪ አስተያየት)
Besides, the people of the two countries have no appetite for another round of war. A difficult history Ethiopia and Eritrea have profound historical and cultural ties. They also have separate histories, which the political classes of the two countries play up or play down depending on their political aspirations.
This is particularly true of the fact that Ethiopia remained independent while Eritrea was colonised by Italy from to Eritrea was subsequently under British rule from to In December the United Nations General Assembly voted in favour of granting Eritrea autonomous federal status under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian Crown.
This was in line with the aspirations of a segment of the Eritrean population. But another section of society was vehemently opposed to this. Eritreans were not given the opportunity to vote on the issue. It is, therefore, difficult to determine which side had a majority in its favour. The federal arrangement proved unsatisfactory to both the unionist and separatist segments of the Eritrean society.