Thebes, Greece - Wikipedia
Diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute failed. Finally, in the spring of , a Spartan ally, Thebes, attacked an Athenian ally, Plataea, and open war began. Athens and Corinth entered the war on the Theban side. Relations between Sparta and Thebes were strained by the terms of the King's. Plataea's relations with Thebes, Sparta and Athens. Plataea was an ancient city of 'Boiotoi' (Iliad ii and ; cf. Thuc. iii ). Throughout its chequered.
The Corinthian War and the King's Peace In a reversal of the alliances of the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Persian king initially allied with Athens and the other Greek city-states against Sparta in the so-called Corinthian War, which lasted from to B.
But this alliance failed, too, because the king and the Greek allies were seeking their own advantage rather than peaceful accommodation. The war ended with Sparta once again cutting a deal with Persia. In a blatant renunciation of its claim to be the defender of Greek freedom, Sparta acknowledged the Persian king's right to control the Greek city-states of Anatolia in return for permission to secure Spartan interests in Greece without Persian interference.
The King's Peace of B. Spartan Aggression and Athenian Resurgence Spartan forces attacked city-states all over Greece in the years after the peace. Athens, meanwhile, had restored its invulnerability to invasion by rebuilding the long walls connecting the city and the harbor. The Athenian general Iphicrates also devised effective new tactics for light-armed troops called peltasts by improving their weapons.Sparta vs Athens : Comparing the Two City-States
The reconstruction of Athens's navy built up its offensive strength, and by B. The years of fighting that followed can be divided into two periods, separated by a truce of six years. The first period lasted 10 years and began with the Spartans, under Archidamus IIleading an army into Atticathe region around Athens.
Theban–Spartan War - Wikipedia
Within a few months, however, Pericles fell victim to a terrible plague that raged through the crowded city, killing a large part of its army as well as many civilians. Thucydides survived an attack of the plague and left a vivid account of its impact on Athenian morale. In the meantime —the Spartans attacked Athenian bases in western Greece but were repulsed. The Spartans also suffered reverses at sea. In they tried to aid the island state of Lesbosa tributary of Athens that was planning to revolt.
But the revolt was headed off by the Athenians, who won control of the chief city, Mytilene. Urged on by the demagogue Cleonthe Athenians voted to massacre the men of Mytilene and enslave everyone else, but they relented the next day and killed only the leaders of the revolt.
Spartan initiatives during the plague years were all unsuccessful except for the capture of the strategic city Plataea in In the next few years the Athenians took the offensive. They attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Peloponnese itself. In the picture was bleak for Sparta, which began to sue for peace.
- Thebes, Greece
They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition, permanently crippled the power of Sparta, in part by freeing many helot slaves, the basis of the Spartan economy. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions. Decline and destruction[ edit ] However, the predominance of Thebes was short-lived, as the states that it protected refused to subject themselves permanently to its control.
By asking Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians, Thebes extended the former's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Moreover, the Thebans themselves were sold into slavery.
The end of Thebes cowed Athens into submission.
According to Plutarch, a special Athenian embassy, led by Phocionan opponent of the anti-Macedonian faction, was able to persuade Alexander to give up his demands for the exile of leaders of the anti-Macedonian party, and most particularly Demosthenes and not sell the people into slavery. End of the Hellenistic period Roman Period. You can help by adding to it. April Ancient writings tend to treat Alexander's destruction of Thebes as excessive.
Alexander's father Philip had been raised in Thebes, albeit as a hostage, and had learnt much of the art of war from Pelopidas. Philip had honoured this fact, always seeking alliances with the Boeotians, even in the lead-up to Chaeronea. Plutarch relates that, during his later conquests, whenever Alexander came across a former Theban, he would attempt to redress his destruction of Thebes with favours to that individual.
This last siege was difficult and Demetrios was wounded, but finally he managed to break down the walls and to take the city once more, treating it mildly despite its fierce resistance. Hellas theme During the early Byzantine period it served as a place of refuge against foreign invaders. From the 10th century, Thebes became a centre of the new silk trade, its silk workshops boosted by imports of soaps and dyes from Athens.
The growth of this trade in Thebes continued to such an extent that by the middle of the 12th century, the city had become the biggest producer of silks in the entire Byzantine empire, surpassing even the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.