Twelve dates which shaped Scotland's relationship with England - BBC News
When Harold Godwinson became king of England on the death of Edward the . century kingdoms rested heavily on the relations between a king and his great lords, and She fled to Scotland after the Norman conquest and married Malcolm. Lesson plan: guide for teacher on procedure including worksheet tasks and answers to tasks. az-links.info · az-links.info history/. the UK and Great Britain. Do you find it difficult to understand the difference between the UK and Great Britain? PDF icon Worksheet and transcript (54KB) .
In the late 6th century the dominant force was the Kingdom of Fortriuwhose lands were centred on Strathearn and Menteith and who raided along the eastern coast into modern England. These missions tended to found monastic institutions and collegiate churches that served large areas.
Origins of the Kingdom of Alba Conversion to Christianity may have speeded a long term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs.
He was later credited with bringing Scottish Christianity into conformity with the Catholic Church. After fighting many battles, his defeat at Brunanburh was followed by his retirement as a Culdee monk at St. The reign of King Donnchad I Duncan I from was marred by failed military adventures, and he was defeated and killed by MacBeth, the Mormaer of Moraywho became king in Particularly important was his second marriage to the Anglo-Hungarian princess Margaret. The two ruled Scotland until two of Edmund's younger brothers returned from exile in England, again with English military backing.
Victorious, Edgarthe oldest of the three, became king in In practice Norse control of the Isles was loose, with local chiefs enjoying a high degree of independence. He was succeeded by his brother Alexanderwho reigned — When Alexander died inthe crown passed to Margaret's fourth son David Iwho had spent most of his life as a Norman French baron in England.
His reign saw what has been characterised as a " Davidian Revolution ", by which native institutions and personnel were replaced by English and French ones, underpinning the development of later Medieval Scotland.
History of Scotland
He created an Anglo-Norman style of court, introduced the office of justicar to oversee justice, and local offices of sheriffs to administer localities. He established the first royal burghs in Scotland, granting rights to particular settlements, which led to the development of the first true Scottish towns and helped facilitate economic development as did the introduction of the first recorded Scottish coinage.
In Julythe English king led a massive army into Scotland.
Wallace offered battle near Falkirk. The battle which followed was long and bloody and ended in the destruction of Wallace's army.
Wallace resigned as guardian and was replaced by two young lords, John Comyn and Robert Bruce. These nobles adopted a guerrilla strategy, avoiding battle, lurking in woods and hills and harrying English forces. Their methods forced Edward to lead repeated campaigns to Scotland and pay for large garrisons in an attempt to grind down resistance.
The demands for men and money that Edward made on his subjects created tensions in England. The Scots also sought to exert diplomatic pressure on the enemy. The pope and the French king both gave support to the Scots, but hopes that this would end Edward's efforts were frustrated by wider political events.
In and the English king led sustained campaigns through Scotland, which led many of his opponents, including Robert Bruce, to make peace.
By summerwhen he laid siege to Stirling Castle, Edward had forced the submission of almost all Scots. The capture and execution of William Wallace in was followed by the issuing of an ordinance for the government of Scotland. Though this ordinance gave the Scots some measure of self-government, it left them a conquered community. Top The Bruce Renewed war against Edward was born out of individual ambition. Robert Bruce had not forgotten his family's claim to the throne and after shifting between Edward and Balliol's supporters, he made his own move.
Bruce murdered his main rival, John Comyn, in February This provided the impetus, and the next month Bruce was crowned king. His coup divided the Scottish nobility. Many joined the English in suppressing the rebels. Bruce was defeated at Methven near Perth in June and he was forced to flee into exile, abandoning family and friends to death and imprisonment.
Bruce's exile, probably in the Hebrides, did allow him to prepare a final rebellion. In Januaryhe landed in Carrick with his rebel supporters. Edward quickly mustered forces to crush the rebels and for the next six months, Bruce's small band desperately eluded their enemy. Bruce out-manoeuvred Edward's poorly-led army, forcing the English king to flee for his life. Things began to improve with the small victories at Glen Trool and Loudoun Hill, but it was the death of Edward in July which marked a turning point.
His heir, Edward II, lacked his father's determination and ability. After a brief foray into Scotland, the new king headed south and failed to return until Bruce grasped his chance. Leading a force northwards, during the following winter, he raised support and defeated the numerous Scottish lords who opposed him in the north. From he used the north as a base to extend his rule into central Scotland, and this improving position allowed him to hold a parliament at St Andrews and negotiate with France, Norway and the papacy.
Though Edward II campaigned in Scotland inhis poor relations with his nobility led to civil war which rumbled on until Once again, Bruce exploited the opportunity. Dundee and Perth were captured and Galloway was forced to submit, leaving only Lothian in English hands.
Bruce's demand that his remaining Scottish enemies should submit finally led to Edward II preparing a fresh campaign. Before it was launched, Bruce's men captured the key castles of Edinburgh and Roxburgh. In Junea massive English army came north.
It marched to relieve Stirling Castle, but on 23 June its advance was blocked by Bruce's smaller host. Over the next two days, Bruce out-manoeuvred Edward's cumbersome and poorly-led army, finally sweeping it from the fields by the small Bannock burn, forcing Edward to flee for his life.
Top Embattled independence Bannockburn gave Robert the Bruce control over Scotland, but did not secure recognition of his crown from England. It would take 14 more years before this was won. In the years fromBruce took the war into Edward II's lands. Scottish armies marched through northern England, plundering and demanding cash for local truces, and in Robert's brother and chief lieutenant, Edward Bruce, led an army to Ireland in search of his own kingdom. After some success, the Irish war ended in Edward's defeat and death at Fochart inbut under James Douglas and Thomas Randolph the Scots were increasingly ambitious in northern England and also captured Berwick in Intense war placed strains on both lands.
- Twelve dates which shaped Scotland's relationship with England
- Norman Britain
- Scottish Wars of Independence
Papal hostility added to Robert's problems and he faced a conspiracy from among his own nobles in Edward was ultimately brought down by a rebellion led by his own queen, Isabella, and her lover, Roger Mortimer. The unified realm described in the famous letter to Pope John known as the Declaration of Arbroath was not always matched in reality.
But the pressures on Edward II were just as strong. The loss of Scotland and the ravaging of the north were elements in sustained opposition to the English king.
BBC - History - British History in depth: Scottish Wars of Independence
InEdward II's policies sparked a new civil war. Robert made efforts to exploit his enemy's problems, but in early Edward's opponents were crushed. A further English invasion of Scotland in ended in retreat and humiliation when the English king was pursued across Yorkshire by the Scots and defeated at Byland.
The shadow of failure in Scotland continued to haunt Edward. He was ultimately brought down by a fresh rebellion inled by his own queen, Isabella, and her lover, Roger Mortimer. He was deposed in favour of his son, Edward III.
Fresh efforts to deal with Bruce once again met with failure and the young king's government agreed a peace with Scotland which abandoned English claims and recognised King Robert.
Bruce had already formed a defensive alliance with France and papal recognition swiftly followed.