Relationship of Sociology with Other Sciences
RELATION BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND OTHER SCIENCES I3. On the other hand, these mechanical divisions o,f labor in a university are veritable travesties . Relation of Sociology with Other Social Sciences! It endeavours to study the social life as a whole. But the social life is so complex that it is impossible to isolate. In this article we will discuss about the relationship of sociology with other sciences. 1. Economics: Economics is primarily concerned with the production and.
However, sociologists continue to emphasize the intellectual autonomy of the field of sociology. Attempts shall be made to explain the connection and distinction between Sociology and some of the more important social sciences in what follows: Sociology and History are so intimately related that writers like Von-Bulow have refused to acknowledge Sociology as a science distinct from History.
History is the record of the life of societies of men, of the changes which the societies have gone through, of the ideas which have determined the actions of these societies and of the material conditions which have helped or hindered their development. Sociology is concerned with the study of the historical development of the societies. It studies the various stages of life, modes of living, customs, manners and their expression in the form of social institutions.
Sociology has thus to depend upon history for its material. History supplies facts which are interpreted and co-ordinated by the sociologists. In the same way sociology gives the social background for the study of history. History is now being studied from the sociological point of view. It is rightly said that the Study of history would be meaningless without the appreciation of social significance.
If history is to be useful to understand the present and to serve as a guide for the future, sociological interpretation of facts is absolutely essential. It is because of their such mutual dependence upon each other that has led G.
Relationship of Sociology to Other Sciences by Jake Gates Ricablanca on Prezi
Howard to remark that History is past Sociology, and Sociology is present History. But inspite of their close relationship the two subjects are distinct, i History is concrete and sociology is abstract. There is much in history that has no direct relation to Sociology, while there is much in Sociology which is not in history. The sociologist would try to find out the common aspects of the events recorded by historians and then to generalise, ii Sociology and History have different attitudes.
History would deal with events in all their aspects while sociology would study them from the viewpoint of social relationship involved. For example, the historians would describe a war, all the circumstances accompanied with it, while sociologists would try to understand a war as a social phenomenon. They will study its impact on the lives of the people, their social institutions, etc.
Sociology and Political Science: Sociology and political science have been very closely related to each other till recently. The two subjects have even now much in common. Political science is a branch of social science dealing with the principles of organisation and government of human society. In other words, Political Science deals with the social groups organised under the sovereign of the state.
It is rightly said that without the sociological background the study of political science will be incomplete. The forms of government, the nature of governmental organs, the laws and sphere of the state activity are determined by the social process. The special study of political life of the society is indispensable for the complete study of the society as a whole.
According to Comte and Spencer, there is no difference whatsoever between the two. Catlin has remarked that political science and sociology are two facets or aspects of the same figure. In the opinion of F. Eminent sociologists like Durkheim, Malinowski, Parsons, Spencer, Mertons, Max Weber and Leryhaix made important contributions in the field of political science. Political Sociology is an inter-disciplinary science which seeks to combine sociological and political approaches.
The two subjects are, however, different from each other. The scope of Sociology is much wider than that of Political Science.
Political Science studies the state and government only, whereas sociology studies all the social institutions. Sociology being the science of society it deals with man in all his associated processes, while Political Science being the science of the political society is concerned with only one form of human association.
Political science is a special science. Political organisation is a special kind of social organisation and that is why political science is a special science while sociology is a general science.
Political Science deals with organised communities only. Sociology deals with both organised and unorganised communities whereas Political Science is concerned only with organised communities. As such sociology is prior to Political Science. Unlike Political Science which treats only conscious activities of man, sociology treats unconscious activities of man also.
Political Science starts with the assumption that man is a political being; sociology goes behind this assumption and tries to explain how and why man became a political being.
Sociology and Anthropology lie so close together that they often appear as two names for the same field of enquiry.
Thus according to its etymological meaning, Anthropology is the study of man as such that is a study of the development of human race. Anthropology has thus a very wide field of study. Anthropology has been divided into three divisions: Anthropology thus devotes its attention entirely to the study of man and his culture as they developed in times long past.
Sociology, on the other hand, studies the same phenomena as they exist at present. In fact the historical part of Sociology is identical with Cultural Anthropology. Anthropology has contributed substantially to the study of Sociology. Sociology has to depend upon Anthropology to understand the present day social phenomena from our knowledge of the past.
Sociology has borrowed cultural area, cultural traits, interdependent traits, cultural lag and other conceptions from social anthropology on whose basis cultural sociology has developed.
The discoveries of Linton and Kardiner have influenced sociology in no small degree. From their researches it is evident that each society has its own culture and the personality of its members is moulded according to it in their infancy.
Relationship of sociology with other social sciences
Likewise the research done by Malinowski has proved valuable to sociology. He has given a functional view point to the study of culture. The researches of Franz Boas and Otto Kineberg have proved that there is no co-relation between anatomical characteristics and mental superiority. The concept of racial superiority has been disproved by anthropology.
Karoeber has called sociology and anthropology twin sisters. Evans Pritchard considers social anthropology to be a branch of sociology. In the same way, some of the conclusions drawn by sociologists have also helped the anthropologists.
For example, anthropologists like Morgan and his followers have come to the conclusion regarding the existence of primitive communism from the conception of private property in our modern society. It studies its political and legal problems, family organisation, religion, art, industries and occupations etc.
Sociology studies only its particular aspects. A sociologist, for obvious reasons, cannot adopt this line of study. He depends largely on questionnaire, and occasionally conducts interviews with a selected group of his unit of study.
A sociologist observes from outside; an anthropologist observes from inside. The former is a non-participant observer, the latter a participant observer. With the virtual disappearance of primitive pre-literate societies, thanks to media of mass communication and easy and quick means of transportation, the social anthropologists have been undertaking, of late, studies of particular aspects of present-day modern societies.
They have also been adapting their style of investigation to the requirements of their study. Both sociologists and anthropologists are found to adopt the same or nearly similar objects for their investigations. For instance, the Indian caste system has been investigated equally competently both by anthropologists and sociologists. Often it is difficult to distinguish an anthropological study from a sociological one.
If this trend continues, the distinction between the two disciplines might get obliterated in course of time in future. There are three dimensions of historical studies: First, the narrative aspect. A historian is not only a story-teller; he is also an investigator and interpreter. Indeed, these non-factual ingredients are often the most significant in any historical recital. Individuals were looked upon as decisive factors in history. A historian is thus able to tell his story in a more convincing way.
The close relation of sociology and history may also be discussed with reference to the interpretation of a unique historical event, e. The event becomes meaningful when it is looked at from a sociological point of view. And we want this chiefly because we want to influence what will occur in future. In much contemporary historiography and sociology the same basic framework of reference is employed, specially where economic and social history are concerned.
At present, sociology faces two opposite dangers — the danger of becoming ultra-theoretical and the danger of becoming ultra-empirical. The first is the danger of losing itself in abstract and meaningless generalizations about society in general. This danger is brought nearer by those who assign to sociology the exclusive task of generalizing from the unique events recorded by history. Sociology, if it is to become a fruitful field of study, must, like history, concern itself with the relation between the unique and the general.
That is, sociology must become dynamic — a study not of society at rest because no such society exists but of social change and development. We may, therefore, conclude by saying that the more sociological history becomes, and the more historical sociology becomes, the better for both the disciplines.
The frontier between the two should be kept wide open for two-way traffic. While tracing the roots of sociology in the second half of the 18th century and the i first half of the 19th century, we noted that one such root was the then prevailing social and political philosophy in Europe.
For a long period of time since then, sociological problems had been approached from a philosophical point of view. Thus, while analysing the direction of social change, many philosophical questions had been raised. Does social change connote social progress?
Do some basic values or over-riding principles envelop the entire society? In course of time, however, sociology ceased to raise such questions and there was a conscious attempt to develop sociology as a positive science, freed from all kinds of ideological trappings. Apparently, the contact between philosophy and sociology was snapped.
But this absence or loss of contact was more apparent than real. There are some areas where the two disciplines overlap.Sociology and Other Social sciences
In the first place, sociology is concerned with the behaviour of men in society. Since such behaviour is deeply influenced, among others, by the value-orientation of the people, a sociologist has to reckon with values while analysing social behaviour. He does not, of course, deal with values in the way a philosopher does.
A sociologist has, however, to keep himself abreast of the philosophical basis of values. In the absence of such acquaintance, he would not be able to assess properly the world-view, hopes, aspirations and dreams of the people. Only by some training in social philosophy can a sociologist get an insight into the working of mind of the people and into their attitudes rooted in tradition.
Secondly, it is argued that sociological discourses sometimes lead to philosophical thought. Durkheim expresses his views thus: That sociological reflection may eventually lead to philosophical reflection may be indicated with reference to a very simple example. Hence it has close relationship with all social sciences and so also with Economics. The relationship of sociology with economics is very close, intimate and personal.
There exists close relationship between these two because economic relationships bear a close relation to social activities and relationships. Likewise social relationships are also affected by economic relationships. Economic activities to a great extent are social activities. Hence both are mutually related. It is concerned with the association of human beings. But Economics deals with economic activities of man. It is a science of wealth and choice. It also studies the structure and functions of different economic organizations like banks, markets etc.
It is concerned with the material needs of man as well as his material welfare. However, there exists a great deal of inter-relationship between these two sciences.
Both are interdependent and inter-related with each other. Their inter-relationships are as follows: Economics takes the help of Sociology. For its own comprehension economics takes the help of sociology and depends on it. Economics is concerned with material welfare of man which is common welfare.
Economic welfare is a part of social welfare. For the solution of different economic problems such as inflation, poverty, unemployment etc.
At the same time society controls the economic activities of man. Economics is greatly benefited by the research conducted by Sociologists like Max-weber, Pareto etc. Some economists also consider economic change as an aspect of social change. Economic draws its generalization basing on the data provided by Sociology. Thus economics cannot go far or develop without the help of Sociology.
Similarly Sociology also takes the help from economics. Economics greatly enriches sociological knowledge. An economic factor greatly influences each and every aspects of social life. Knowledge and research in the field of economics greatly contributes to sociology. Each and every social problem has an economic cause. For the solution of social problems like dowry, suicide etc.
Sociologists take the help from economics. Marx opines economic relations constitute the foundation of Society. Economic factors play a very important role in every aspect of our social life that is why Sociologists concerned with economic institutions. For this reason Sociologists like Spencer, Weber, Durkheim and others have taken the help from economics in their analysis of social relationships.
Thus both sociology and economics are very closely related with each other. There are some problems which are being studied by both sociologists and economists. Economic changes results in social changes and vice versa.
However, inspite of the above closeness, inter-relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences have certain differences which are described below: Hence it is closely related to other social sciences and so also with psychology. Sociology and Psychology are very closely interlinked interrelated and interdependent. Relationship between the two is so close and intimate that Psychologist like Karl Pearson refuses to accept both as special science.
Both depend on each other for their own comprehension. Their relationship will be clear if we analyze their inter-relationship and mutual dependency. Sociology is a science of social phenomena and social relationship. It is a science of social group and social institutions.
It is a science of collective behavior. It studies human behavior in groups. But psychology is a science of mind or mental processes. It is a science of human behavior. It analyses attitudes, emotions, perception, process of learning and values of individuals and process of personality formation in society. Sociology receives help from Psychology. There are many psychologists like Freud, MacDougal and others who have enrich Sociology in many respects. They opines that the whole social life could be reduced finally to psychological forces.
Each and every social problems and social phenomenon must have a psychological basis for the solution of which sociology requires the help from psychology.
A new branch of knowledge has developed with the combination of sociology and psychology which is known as social psychology. Similarly, psychology depends on Sociology to comprehend itself fully. Psychology also requires help from sociology in many cases. As human mind and personality is being influenced by social environment, culture, customs and traditions hence psychology take the help from Sociology to understand this.
To understand human nature and behaviour properly psychology depends on sociology. There are many Psychological problems which must have a Social Cause. Psychology requires the help from Sociology to understand these social problems.
A research in Sociology richly contributes to psychology. Contributions and theories of many Sociologists also are of great help to Psychologists.
The Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
Thus Sociology and Psychology are mutually dependent on each other. Besides there are some common area of study such as social disorganization, public opinion etc. Social Psychology a branch of Psychology is developed with the combination of the two.