Power, authority and influence – Oliver Thylmann’s Thoughts
relationships is central to the understanding of difference between power and authority. ▻ Power = the thinkers had missed out a huge area of influence. The relationship between the Concepts of Power, Authority and Legitimacy is Generally, in politics and social science, power is the ability to influence the. Weber made in his analysis of the connection between authority and legitimacy. He did . munity decision-making published to date, power and influence are.
In order to meet the challenge of Palestinian guerillas, Israel invaded Lebanon on 6th June, This is another example of using force. Measurement of Power is also an important question.
It we want to measure power in India and Pakistan, then we will have to judge who is ruling actually Delhi and Islamabad. We will then find that in Delhi Cabinet type of government prevails where Prime Minister is the head. The Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi is also the President of the Congress Party. So he controls his Cabinet and his party as well. In Pakistan, there was military dictatorship of Zia-ul-Haq. The second way to measure power is to rely on judgment made by the people.
Several observers can be asked to judge the power of certain people. It was a section of the people who thought that Sanjay Gandhi was an extra-constitutional centre for power. The third way to measure power to study the actual decision-making process. Dev Kant Barooah, Congress President was criticised by his opponents for the rout of the Congress inthen he remarked that the fault lay with the decision-maker i. Importance of the concepts of Power and influence: Robert A Dahl holds the men often disagree about the proper use of power, its consequences, influence and authority.
Lord Acton in a letter written in said, "Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and authority. Among all the causes which degrade and demoralize man, power is the most constant and the most active".
All of us will agree on one point that power, influence and authority are very much important concepts of Political Science. Dahl rightly observes, "Nothing is "lore likely to lead to bad political strategies than to misunderstand, 'power', to misperceive 'the power-structure', for to be misled about 'power' is to be misled about the prospects and means of stability, change and revolution".
He also adds that those persons who used their powers judiciously. In his own words, "the grave-yards of history are stewn with the corpses of reformers who failed utterly to reform anything, of revolutionaries who failed to win power, of revolutionaries who successfully seized power and failed to make the revolution they intended, of anti-revolutionaries who failed to prevent revolution men and women who failed not only because of the force arrayed against them but because of the pictures in their minds about power and influence were simplistic and inaccurate".
Power is associated with coercion and coercion with painful sanctions. The length of Coercion Sectors will vary from culture to culture depending on the range of penalties considered to be coercive in quality. The value of sanctions will vary from man to man and society to society. Another category of political influence is that where the sanctions used are so weak relatively as not to be considered coercive.
A person may be affected in his action by the introduction of well presented new evidence, though the only consequence of ignoring it may be to appear unreasonable.
Power, Authority & Legitimacy Theory - Politics Revision
If the evidence is accepted, the outcome will be affected and the person who introduced it has exerted political influence. Political influence is the suitable outcome of possessions-Wealth, health education, charm and other things and the skill with which they are made use of. We have also seen that power is the ability of an individual or groups to influence another individuals or group. In this way influence is a relationship.
It is a relationship between individuals or groups which can make another to act in a way that he may not do otherwise. We can distinguish between power and influence by saying that those who have got power, they can influence the conduct of others more easily than those who do not possess any power.
It is admitted on all hands that power and influence are co-related terms but influence turns into power when sanctions enter. Suppose A is an officer and asks B another subordinate official to obey his orders, then if B refuses and A suspends him, then A has used his powers. So it is a process of sanctions which differentiates power from influence in general.
Any how, power and influence are supplementary. For example, India has no power over the non-aligned countries out India exercised considerable influence over these countries, when she was the President. In day-to-day language we use the word authority. For example, we say that parents have got the authority over their children or elder brothers and sisters have got authority over their younger brothers and sisters.
Similarly, we find the teachers using authority over their pupils and the doctors exercising authority over his patients. The patients accept the authority of doctors without any hitch in order to get the disease cured.
Push strategies attempt to influence by imposing or threatening to impose costs on your target. This will depend on your position and the resources you control and might lead to a climate of fear and distrust. Pull reward strategies are the basis of theories of motivation and depends on the reward being desired and fair.
Praise and recognition are often used. Persuasion is the achievement of influence through appeals to reason.
You can draw on your expertise and control of information and the delivery of the argument is important. This is the preferred option because people will do what you want because they believe in what you are trying to do. But avoid assuming that other people share your values, see things like you do and that they are wrong if they disagree.
Power, authority and influence
Preparatory strategies prepare the ground for future attempts at influence possibly by trying to build a positive relationship. Preventive strategies are for preventing certain action, such as stopping questions being raised, holding back info or suppressing dissent. Different groups have a say on different aspects.
Elitist critiques argue this fails to understand unequal influence of key elites — real decisions made by a fixed elite — real power belongs to banks and military C. Advocates strong, monarchical government.
Agenda setting — Bachrach Baratz —idea of non-decision making. Links to influential parties who collectively agree or just block discussion — slight elitist theory. Elite tend to dominate flow of information and media and so use this to their advantage.
Look at the way demonstrations are portrayed in the media.
Thought control — previous two assume that people and groups are rational and capable of knowing their own mind. The ability to manipulate human behaviour can be shaped — some argue this is where the real power lies.
Marxist ideas based on favouritism of state towards bourgeoisie and their power through economy and politics — Gramsci and bourgeois hegemony — bourgeoisie literally control popular culture and so control the way we think. Therefore we think life is only better with material goods so bourgeoisie benefit even more.
New Left ideas and Marcuse — link to totalitarianism but with media, TUs, adverts, culture replacing brutal coercion manipulating needs. Liberals reject this — individuals are rational.
Authority a form of rightful power.
- Relation between Power, Authority and Legitimacy
- Importance of Power, Influence, Authority and Legitimacy in Political Science
Weber linked authority to legitimacy — different approach from others stating that legitimacy gave power authority. Authority seldom exercised in absence of power. Patriarchalism — links to hereditary systems. Less relevant today, although evident in one form in theocratic states — the resurgence of this type of authority can be seen as a response to the failure of other types in degenerative Western capitalism.
Owes nothing to status, social position or office, yet can be used to promote the interests of society Rousseau and Law Giver. Charismatic has an almost messianic quality — treated with suspicion — Talmon and criticism of Rousseau. Legal-rational — situation for most liberal democratic Western capitalist societies. Operates through a body of clearly defined rules — linked to formal powers of office not office holder. Less likely to be abused than other 2 as the limit of authority is defined.
Arises out of a respect for the rule of law and is evident in the constitutional framework of long-established states.