relationship with the characteristics of the school, teachers' main instructional strategies based on their The teacher-directed instruction strategy. • I explicitly . Below is a list of 49 instructional strategies, or approaches, that have been adapted with the . Inquiry learning is based on constructivist theories of learning , where . is a visual and graphic display that depicts the relationships between facts. PDF | This chapter reviews instructional methods (techniques, strategies, and tactics) and the system to a large extent based on the duration of the relationship.
Discussion can be meaningfully adapted to many classroom situations. For example, whole class discussion may occur if, during a presentation, the teacher notices that students are particularly interested in a topic and initiates a discussion.
Whole class discussion can help build a positive classroom climate and lead to student interest in a school subject. In addition, the teacher can model active listening and build on student responses.
Effective discussions are normally based on material familiar to the students. The problem or issue can be one that does not require a particular response, or one where it is important for students to discover an answer. The teacher should stress with students that opinions must be supported, and then ensure that the terms and concepts needed are understood.
Discussion should conclude with consensus, a solution, clarification of insights gained, or a summary preferably one provided by the students. Students should have a clear understanding of the major points and their applications to other situations. It should be noted that some discussions can lead students to conduct further research.
Question and Answer When the question and answer method is used effectively, students feel they are being personally addressed by the teacher. When responding, students should speak, not only to the teacher, but also to their peers. Frequent use should be made of probes, prompts, and redirecting techniques.
An important aspect of the question and answer method is the wording of questions in order to help students think more deeply about the material or unit under study. Small Group Interaction Small groups are particularly effective when the intention is to develop social as well as academic abilities.
Instruction/Cognitive Strategies | Special Connections
In a small group, everyone has an opportunity to contribute. Students get more chances to talk, listen, and receive feedback than would be possible in whole-class instruction. Co-operative Learning Group The basic elements of co-operative learning can be considered essential to all interactive methods. Student groups are small, usually consisting of two to six members. Grouping is heterogeneous with respect to student characteristics. Group members share the various roles and are interdependent in achieving the group learning goal.
While the academic task is of primary importance, students also learn the importance of maintaining group health and harmony, and respecting individual views.
A substantial body of research has shown that co-operative learning is effective. Johnson and Johnson state: Co-operative learning experiences, compared to competitive and individualistic ones, promote higher achievement, greater motivation, more positive interpersonal relations among students, more positive attitudes toward the subject area and teacher,greater self esteem and psychological health, more accurate perspective taking, and greater social skills p.
In addition, Slavin indicates that two conditions must be established if cooperative learning is to fulfill its claim of enhancing student achievement substantially. Slavin believes that "students must be working toward a common goal. Co-operative learning can take place in a variety of circumstances. For example, brainstorming and tutorial groups, when employed as instructional strategies, provide opportunities to develop co-operative learning skills and attitudes. Experiential Learning Simulation To initiate a simulation, the teacher presents an artificial problem, situation, or event that represents some aspect of reality.
Because the experience is a simulation, any serious risk or complication that may be associated with the real life phenomenon is removed. In addition, the level of abstraction or complexity is purposefully reduced so that students may become directly involved with underlying concepts. Simulation also allows for types of experimentation that cannot take place in the real environment.Teaching Approaches, Methods, Techniques and Strategies
The simulation method may involve the use of models, game formats, structured role plays, or an interactive computer or video program. In most instances, students are easily motivated to participate.
During simulation activities, students become active participants in the learning process. A variety of learning objectives may be associated with the simulation.
Instructional Approaches: Chapter 2: Instructional Models, Strategies, Methods, And Skills
Some focus on the application of previous knowledge, skills, and abilities, while others emphasize the acquisition of new knowledge, understandings, insights, and appreciations. Many simulation activities promote and develop critical and creative thinking or involve interactions which develop interpersonal and social skills, attitudes, and values. Imaging enables students to relax and allow their imaginations to take them on journeys, to "experience" situations first hand, and to respond with their senses to the mental images formed.
In the classroom, imaging exercises nurture and develop students' creative potentials. Teachers can encourage divergent thinking by asking students to transform a teacher guided image into several others of their own creation, to imagine various solutions for spatial or design problems, or to visualize a particular scene or event and then imagine what might happen next. Imaging provides a focus and an opportunity for open-minded exploration of new concepts in all areas of study. It can help broaden students' conceptual understanding of subject area material, especially complex concepts and processes.
Imaging allows students to connect their prior experiences to new ideas under investigation. Assigned Questions Assigned questions are those prepared by the teacher to be answered by individuals or small groups of students.
Students discuss their responses among one another or with the teacher. Particular positions or points-of-view should be supported by evidence. In some instances, it may be desirable for students to generate their own set of questions.
This instructional method is effective when questions are well-phrased so that answering involves more than mechanical searching and copying from a book or other reference.
It can be an efficient way for the teacher to introduce or review facts, concepts, generalizations, arguments, and points-of-view. Well-selected assigned questions can stimulate higher-level thinking, problem solving, decision making, and personal reflection. Questions should allow for multiple responses. Because student abilities and learning styles differ, this method may require some adaptation in order to maximize learning for all students. Learning Contracts Learning contracts provide a method of individualizing instruction and developing student responsibility.
They permit individual pacing so that students may learn at the rate at which they are able to master the material. Learning contracts can be designed so that students function at the academic levels most suitable to them and work with resource materials containing concepts and knowledge that are appropriate to their abilities and experiences.
Also, after a number of hints, it may be that the only student who doesn't know the answer is the one being called on, which ends up being an embarrassing experience.
The important point, however, is to use hints and clues with all students to communicate that you have high expectations for the entire class. This helps build positive teacher-student relations. Tell Students They Have the Ability to Do Well Another way to communicate positive expectations to students is by directly telling them they have the ability to do well.
When you tell your students you have confidence that they can handle a difficult assignment or improve their behavior, you impart a very powerful message.
Students often will work hard and behave appropriately to prove that your confidence in them is justified. Every child needs to have at least one significant adult in his or her life who believes that he or she can do well.
Ideally, children would hear this from their parents, but the sad truth is that is not always the case. Teachers have the unique opportunity and privilege to communicate daily to a number of students that they believe in them.
What a gift to be able to be that significant adult in even one student's life. Using this strategy might lead a teacher to say this to a student: You've been working very hard on remembering to write down your thinking as you solve math problems, and I know you can transfer that skill to this test.
I'll check back with you later. Once again, this is a positive relations strategy as well as an instructional strategy. You can also let students know that you have positive expectations for them by referring to past successes Kerman et al. When you tell a student that you know he will behave appropriately at recess because he was successful yesterday, you help build confidence in the student and increase his chance for success.
And after a student demonstrates good behavior or academic achievement in a specific situation, telling her you knew she would be successful Kerman et al. Students need to know that their teachers respect them and have confidence in them. Using these different strategies to consistently communicate your positive expectations will work wonders. We challenge you to begin using one or two of these strategies today to build high expectations and positive teacher-student relations.
Correcting Students in a Constructive Way Correcting and disciplining students for inappropriate behaviors is a necessary and important part of every teacher's job. However, it doesn't have to be a negative part of your job.
In fact, you can actually build positive relationships when you correct students. If you don't believe this, think for just a minute about students you have had in the past who came back to school to visit you. Often it is the students who were the most challenging and with whom you had to spend the most time who continue to visit you over the years.
This is due to the positive relationships you developed with them. The goal in correcting students should be to have them reflect on what they did, be sorry that they disappointed you, and make a better choice in the future.
I'm going to be sure I don't get caught next time. If you allow students to keep their dignity, you increase the chance that they will reflect on their behavior and choose their behaviors more wisely in the future. The correction process will be counterproductive if students are corrected in a manner that communicates bitterness, sarcasm, low expectations, or disgust.
Explicit instruction is used to impart the components or steps of the strategy. Often the strategy will include actions or routines that are repeated each time the strategy is implemented. Additional instructional supports such as guided practice, independent practice, verbal practice, and written or oral tests may also be used. A Real-Life Example You can compare the teaching of cognitive strategies to teaching a friend to drive in your hometown.
This knowledge can make your teaching more efficient, because you have two areas of expertise the content and the learner at your disposal. You will use a combination of explicit instructions turn left on Church Street and supports maps, the rule that "all avenues run North-South" to teach your friend how to navigate around town.
You may also use verbal directions as opposed to maps, depending on your friend's preferred mode of information. Just as important, you can avoid situations that could become barriers to learning and your friendship. For example, if your friend tends to be anxious, you will NOT begin your instruction during rush hour!
- Chapter 1. Developing Positive Teacher-Student Relations
Selected Cognitive Strategies Because they are diverse and highly relevant to tasks, the use of cognitive strategies by teachers and students can significantly impact important learning outcomes for students. This website provides examples of cognitive strategies, with descriptions and examples. The following table presents the strategies that will be discussed.
In addition, case studies will be presented to show cognitive strategies in action.