Isabella I of Castile - Wikipedia
Isabella I. queen of Spain. Alternative Titles: Isabel la Católica, Isabella the As heiress of Castile, the question of Isabella's future marriage. Ferdinand II called the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon from until his death. His marriage in to. King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile were the rulers of Spain at the beginning of Spain's 'golden age' in the 15th century. They See full.
One of the modern arguments for the possibility that Columbus was Jewish is that his voyage was financed not by Isabella but by converso bankers.
I can imagine Isabella saying: If he finds the Indies, the profits will be enormous. Portugal dominates trade around the coast of Africa, but a passage to the Indies to the west would be all ours.
Ferdinand and Isabella, not to mention all the Spaniards who accompanied Columbus on his voyages, had a greater lust for gold than Columbus himself, whose greatest wish was to bring an abundant return on their investment to the King and Queen. When gold proved to be in shorter supply in Hispaniola than expected, he made up the shortfall by taking Taino slaves and transporting them across the sea in conditions as appalling as those in the slaving ships of the 18th and 19th centuries.
This is a fashionable idea today. But first, it was the Christians, not the Jews, who longed to expel the Muslims from Jerusalem in the later Middle Ages—hence the Crusades. Second, Columbus expected to find existing civilizations open to trade with Europe, not empty lands. And third, the King and Queen made it perfectly clear when they agreed to sponsor the second voyage that all lands claimed and gold mined or collected became the property of the Crown.
Between the ages of 20 and 30, Ferdinand performed a series of heroic deeds. Ferdinand rushed from Zaragoza to Segovia, where Isabella had herself proclaimed queen of Castile on December This initiated a confederation of kingdoms, which was the institutional basis for modern Spain.
In portraits he appears with soft, well-proportioned features, a small, sensual mouth, and pensive eyes. His literary descriptions are more complicated, although they agree in presenting him as good-looking, of medium height, and a good rider, devoted to games and to the hunt.
He had a clear, strong voice. From to Ferdinand struggled to take a firm seat in Castile with his young wife and to transform the kingdom politically, using new institutional molds partly inspired by those of Aragon. This policy of modernization included a ban against all religions other than Roman Catholicism.
- Catholic Monarchs
- Isabella I
- Ferdinand II of Aragon
The establishment of the Spanish Inquisition to enforce religious uniformity and the expulsion of the Jews were both part of a deliberate policy designed to strengthen the church, which would in turn support the crown. The years —92 were frantic for Ferdinand.
In the spring months he directed the campaign against the kingdom of Granadashowing his military talent to good effect, and he conquered the kingdom inch by inch, winning its final capitulation on Jan. During the months of rest from war, he visited his kingdoms, learning their geography and problems firsthand. At the age of 50 Ferdinand was an incarnation of royalty, and fortune smiled on him. But he also suffered a succession of tragedies: Meanwhile, in the Inquisition had been set up in Andalusia.
There is little doubt that this represented the culmination of a long and popular movement against non-Christians and doubtful converts, which had manifested itself frequently in the late Middle Ages in Castile.
True Confessions of Ferdinand and Isabella
The expulsion in of those Jews who refused conversion was the logical result of the establishment of the Inquisition. Yet, however meritorious the expulsion may have seemed at the time in order to achieve greater religious and political unity, judged by its economic consequences alone, the loss of this valuable element in Spanish society was a serious mistake.
But, undoubtedly, she played a large part in establishing the court as a centre of influence. With her blue eyes, her fair or chestnut hair, and her jewels and magnificent dresses, she must have made a striking figure.
Isabella of Spain - Women
At the same time display was matched with religious feeling. Her choice of spiritual advisers brought to the fore such different and remarkable men as Hernando de Talavera and Cardinal Cisneros. A policy of reforming the Spanish churches had begun early in the 15th century, but the movement gathered momentum only under Isabella and Talavera. The monarchs were interested in the reform of the secular clergy and still more in that of the orders of monks, friars, and nuns; Isabella took a particular interest in the reform of the Poor Claresan order of Franciscan nuns.
Although when she died there was still much to be done, the rulers and Cisneros together had gone far toward achieving their goals. This was particularly true when she thought the pope was making bad appointments to Spanish benefices or in any way encroaching on the customary rights of the crown over the Spanish churches.
For example, for the vacant see of Cuenca in she rejected the Italian cardinal appointed by the pope, who four years later accepted her alternative Spanish candidate. In seeking to control appointments to Castilian sees, Isabella was not simply inspired by national sentiments.
She also sought candidates of high standards; judged by her choices of men such as Talavera and Cisneros, Isabella was remarkably effective in achieving her objective. Isabella was almost as interested in education as she was in religion. After she reached the age of 30, she acquired proficiency in Latin.
She was also the patron of Spanish and Flemish artists, and part of her extensive collection of pictures survives.